The sensitivity of the internal organs

Long time was considered that the domestic authorities deprived of sensitivity. About this seemingly spoke observations. Even Harvey described the young man, who in connection with a birth defect of the chest heart was not covered by her and decreased directly under the skin. Harvey writes that brought the young man to king Charles I, who had the opportunity, as I do, to make sure that the heart is not sensitive to touch. The young man didn't even know that we had touched his heart." In the future, when widespread in medicine operation on internal organs, doctors were convinced that painful when sections of skin, muscles, the peritoneum. By themselves, internal organs, if not to pull them behind the peritoneum, absolutely painless. You can cut, burn, and so on, Special experiments have shown that if while eating the animal to burn displayed outside a loop of the intestine, it is not even a violation of appetite. When brain operations, as already mentioned, an anaesthetic only skin and other epithelial tissue. The brain is insensitive to the surgeon's knife.
Along with these facts, speaking about the lack of sensitivity of the internal organs of those or other diseases of them (for example, spasms of blood vessels, stomach ulcer) marked the strongest pain. To work Pavlov science could not resolve this contradiction. Only the student Pavlov, K. M. Bykov gave to this question comprehensive answer. The basis and here was the method of conditional reflexes.
In the stomach of the dog quietly for it, i.e. without irritation of vision and hearing, poured water at different temperatures, then the dog was fed. After many combinations alone the flow of water in the stomach caused the secretion of saliva. If fed only after infusion of cool water, the further inflow of warm water did not cause excretion of saliva. In this way were "probed" literally all the internal organs and found that they are lots of signals in the brain cortex. The difference between the signals from the outside world is that in normal circumstances they do not cause strong excitation of bark, and therefore do not reach consciousness. In the case of illness those signals to grow sharply.
Many years of research has shown that the domestic authorities have sensitivity to chemical, thermal and mechanical stimuli. So, in comparison with the external parsers they are deprived only of sight and hearing. It and is clear - they are not dealing with distant objects.
One of the important chemical sensitivity is the sensitivity of the receptors of blood vessels to changes in the composition of blood. We have already experienced it, when he spoke about the regulation of respiration. Getting acquainted with the regulation of heat transfer, we saw that the body reacts to temperature changes blood. As for sensitivity to mechanical irritation, there are a number of important species.
First, chuvstvitelnaja nervous devices used in our muscles. Not by chance that we can easily determine the severity of the subject which take in their hands. In the brain continuously go signals about how far tense muscles. On the border of the parietal and frontal areas of the brain there is a zone of motor analyzer, which receives signals from our skeletal muscles. That this sensitive the system is in the organism, a special place, for it has no right of adaptation, we have already spoken.
Second, very important receptors are present in the walls of blood vessels. They perceive the level of blood pressure and called baroretseptorov. Similar receptors accept the pressure in the tie rod inside the body, are in the bladder, rectum , etc.
Thirdly, in a number of agencies are receptors perceive the degree of tension tissues. These are closely associated with muscle sensitivity of the nervous devices tendons, joints and so on, as well as receptors of lung tissue.
A special place among other kinds of mechanical sensitivity is the organ of balance. It is located in the inner ear in close proximity to the cochlea. In its three arched tubes, called the semicircular canals, and two small bags are receptors that annoyed when driving filling tubes and bags of fluids, as well as grains of sand, floating in it. If you were turning your head, slopes, especially when the situation upside down the organ of balance comes in a state of irritation and causes the body to take the correct posture. Deaf mutes who often along with the snail's suffering and its neighbor - the organ of balance, when diving not clearly feel the top and the bottom; it can sometimes end tragically.