Nosocomial infection

Nosocomial infection (synonym nosocomial infection) - diseases that infect diseased or health workers that are in infectious hospital or treat infectious patients. The source of hospital-acquired infections are sick, hospitalized within the incubation period of the disease, patients with mixed infection, patients who fail the period of disunity, bakterionositeli among patients and staff, and visitors. The occurrence of nosocomial infections in the hospital depends on the wrong diagnosis, underestimation of epidemiological history, misallocation of patients in the wards, violations of anti-epidemic regime and rules current disinfection hospital staff.
Transport of infectious patients should be made by special transport, individually. In infectious hospitals (departments) must be observed system that eliminates the possibility of cross-infection. Reception Department and wards for the patients with unstated diagnosis and persons who were in contact, and must be arranged according to the type of individual insulators (see Boxes).
Of great importance in the prevention of nosocomial infections have strict discipline of the staff, observance of rules of anti-epidemic regime and current disinfection, proper ventilation chambers, disinfection of air bactericidal lamps, wet cleaning with the use of chemicals, disinfection of faeces. The wearing of masks protects the patient and health worker from mutual intrusion droplet infections.
Ban to visit patients in the infectious diseases hospitals. Prevention of serum hepatitis infection which may parenteral through a strict selection of donors, the use of individual syringes, needles, disinfecting them in the autoclave or sterilization after each manipulation of not less than 45 minutes To check the quality of cleaning tools from the blood should be benzidine test (see) or fenolftaleina the sample. In the wards for patients epidemic hepatitis allocate individual tool for patients with unconfirmed diagnosis. By drawing blood from a finger, use needle-scarificator single-use or needle Frank with interchangeable spears.
Nosocomial infections in children's hospital. An important link in the system of combating nosocomial infections is the provision of sanitary-hygienic conditions in hospitals. In the prevention of nosocomial infections play a significant role timely diagnosis, recording and alarm workers health posts and clinics about contacts and illness in children, sent to the hospital. To guarantee necessary to collect epidemiological anamnesis in the hospital. In addition, the successes in the fight against hospital-acquired infections depend on the quality of epidemiological services, state vaccination works at the site, and the skillful use of means of specific prophylaxis and antibiotics.
Principles of prevention of nosocomial infections for children of different age groups have their own characteristics. Hygienic mode newborn starts with care immediately after birth. When pustular rash child isolate and organize personal care. Not less dangerous for children of this age of infection is through the mouth and respiratory tract. In order to avoid the drift of an infection in a baby house Pets only staff directly related to newborns. With the introduction of the box system became possible hospitalization of patients with pyoderma, acute respiratory diseases, pneumonia in separate boxes or chamber, eliminating cross-infection.
In children of early age, special attention should be paid to the prevention of acute intestinal infections. This is of great importance breastfeeding, observance of sanitary-antiepidemic regime in food units and hospitals, early recognition of disease and timely isolation of the patient. The insulation shall be the children who have recently given dysentery or diarrhea of unknown etiology as possible relapse dysentery due to the accession of secondary infection.
In the heart of prevention of the epidemic of hepatitis same principles as for other intestinal infections. High-prophylactic effectiveness against the epidemic of hepatitis b and measles has a gamma globulin. Some effect from the use of gamma globulin can be obtained in the introduction to his children 1 year of life who had contact with a patient with whooping cough. Preventing the spread of scarlet fever include quick isolation not only of the sick with scarlet fever, and streptococcal sore throat, located in scarlatina the hearth. In the case of diphtheria isolate the patient and media diphtheria Bacillus. To identify carriers produce a controlling crops mucus from throat and nose all coming to the hospital. Combating nosocomial spread of influenza, adenovirus infections, chickenpox based on early diagnosis and quick isolation of patients. Cm. Isolation of infectious patients.