Water fever

Water fever (synonym: bestellung leptospirosis, grippo-typhoid leptospirosis, silt fever) is an acute febrile illness related to zoonoses.
Etiology. The pathogens of various species of Leptospira - thin mobile spiral, consisting of a large number adjacent to each other curls.
Epidemiology. The main source of the infection are rodents - vole. Additional tank serve as Pets. People become infected through water contaminated with the urine of infected animals, bathing, drinking, and when mowing. The disease is observed in the form of epidemic outbreaks (may - September) or sporadic cases throughout the year.
Pathogenesis and pathological anatomy. In the human body Leptospira penetrate through the damaged skin, mucous membranes, and quickly into the blood, and then in parenchymatous organs (liver, spleen, kidneys), which are developing inflammatory processes. With 2-3rd week of illness Leptospira are detected in the urine of the patient.
The clinical picture. The incubation period 2-14 days. The disease begins abruptly, with chills and a rapid rise of temperature up to 39-40 degrees. They have a severe headache, muscle pain, especially the calf and back, liver enlargement, and some patients with spleen and lymph nodes. In some cases, the skin is short-polymorphic roseolous or roseolous-petechial rash on the lips and wings of the nose herpes. Sometimes develops lepto-serosny meningitis benign course. To 7-9 th day of illness temperature critical or rapid lysis decreased to normal values. Possible recurrence of the disease. Depending on the severity of injury recovery occurs on 10-15-20-day sickness.
Complications are rare; perhaps vitreous opacity.
Laboratory diagnostics. For detection of the pathogen in the first week of illness do blood cultures, for 2-3 weeks - sowing urine and cerebrospinal fluid in a special nutrient medium. From the 2nd week of the disease is the reaction of agglutination.
Treatment. Compulsory hospitalization, in bed, lacto-vegetarian diet, drinking plenty of fluids. At headaches and muscle pain - amidopyrine 0.5 g 3 times a day, analgin 0.5 g 3 times a day. Shown cardio-vascular equipment. Infuse intravenous drip method 500 ml of 5% solution of glucose 1-2 times a day. Give intramuscular penicillin 900 000-1 500 000 IU a day for 6-8 days.
Prevention: sanitary-veterinary control at the time of the epidemic among animals. It is forbidden to eat meat and milk of infected animals. Epidemic indications injected vaccine subcutaneously at a dose of 2 ml twice, the interval between injections to 7 days; revaccination - 1 year (2 ml). Immunity develops within 15-20 days and lasts for years.
Cm. also Leptospirosis.