Hydrotherapy (synonym hydrotherapy) - external use of water with curative and preventive purposes. The water has temperature, mechanical and chemical effects on the body. Temperature and hydrostatic pressure of water and dissolved salts irritate embedded in the skin thermo-, Baro - and chemoreceptors; volatile and gaseous substances and ions of iodine, bromine and other penetrate through the skin and the respiratory tract, affecting the receptors of blood vessels and internal organs. Action hydropathic procedures on different organs and systems of the organism is carried out by neurohumoral.
Depending on different water temperatures and techniques of water treatment have very diverse action: cause the redistribution of blood flow in the peripheral blood vessels and internal organs, reduces foci of chronic inflammation, the destruction of pathological products of metabolism, affect the functional state of the nervous system and muscle tone , and so on Procedures with warm water (temperature 37-39 degrees) mainly calming effect, cold (temperature below 20 degrees) and cool (temperature 20-33 degrees) tone the body, quenched it. Thanks to this versatile action hydrotherapy is used in many diseases.
Technique of water treatment. General perfusion. Bare patient pour 2-3 buckets of water (Fig., 1), the procedure daily for 4 to 6 weeks, gradually lowering the temperature of the water with 34-33 degrees to 22-20 degrees. Procedure duration is 1-2 minutes After pouring patient wipe sheets.
The procedure has a stimulating and tonic effect, improves metabolism.
Partial cold water, often with cold water (temperature of 16-20 degrees), conduct of rubber hose, jug or a watering can.
Pour not all the body, but only some part of it: the back of the head (Fig.,2)with the purpose of improvement of respiration and circulation; hands and feet (Fig., 3-when sweating, vasomotor disorders, varicose veins , and so on; the back (Fig., 4) in case of neurasthenic States, etc.
General rubdown. Bare patient standing in a basin with warm water, and wrap canvas sheets soaked with water temperature 32-30 degrees (to the end of treatment temperature 20-18 degrees) and well wrung out; quickly and vigorously rubbed on top of the sheets (Fig., 5) to the feeling of warmth. The procedure lasts 2 to 3 minutes, then the patient wipe with a dry sheet. Sometimes after wiping it poured 1-2 buckets of water at the temperature of 1-2 temperature lower the previous one, then wipe off (rubdown with douche). The patient can be performed independently, wiping all the body parts in a certain sequence with a sponge or a special mitten, and then dry with a drying towel.
Partial wiping spend weakened patients. The patient lies in bed, covered by a blanket (Fig., b)that in turn open the first one leg, then the other, hand, back, and so on, impose on them moistened with water and pressed the towel and carefully grind on top of it (you can rubbing produce special mitten, moistened with water, and then wipe off and again, cover with a blanket. To strengthen irritating the skin actions in water, add salt, alcohol, hygienic Cologne. The procedure has a refreshing and tonic effect, improves blood circulation and boosts the metabolism.
Wet wraps (wraps). Lay on the couch big blanket and top sheet, moistened with water temperature 30-25 degrees (rarely below) and well wrung, wrapped bare patient first in a sheet, and then in blanket (see figure, 7). Depending on the duration of the procedure can have a stimulating and antipyretic (10-15 minutes), sedative (30 - 40 minutes) and diaphoretic (50-60 minutes or more), the.
Soul. Summary of water of different temperature and pressure to the shower facilities is a shower chair (see). Struenym souls (Fig., 8) include power shower and Scottish.
Charcot shower: the patient is standing at a distance 3-3,5 m from the shower chair, direct water jet. First pour it on all sides with fan stream, then a compact stream affect the individual parts of the body, starting from the legs back. It is necessary to avoid contact of a jet of water on the face, head, Breasts, genitals. Finish the procedure with fan stream. The water temperature in the beginning 35-32°, daily or every other day it reduced by 1 degree, by the end of treatment is brought to 20-15 degrees. Pressure of 1.5 - 3 am, duration of the procedure 1-5 min. power shower prescribed mainly for functional diseases of nervous system, in combination with other procedures in the treatment of metabolic diseases and especially with obesity. Scottish shower: patient alternately send two hoses hot (temperature 37-45°, within 30-40 sec.) and cold (temperature 25-10°, for 15-20 sec.) the water jet. So I repeat 4-6 times. It is used primarily as a local procedure: on stomach (for obesity, atonic constipation); on the lower back (lumbar scoliosis muscles in the lumbar-sacral radiculitis). Circular shower (Fig., 10) has a significant irritant effect. Less irritating have rainfall (Fig., 9) and needle soul, appointed mainly as refreshing and restorative treatment; held under slight pressure. Rising douche (Fig., 11): the patient sits on a tripod with the annular seat, which is installed tip rain shower, facing up. A jet of water (temperature 37-20 degrees) get on the crotch. Procedure duration-2 - 5 minutes conducted daily at the rate of 15-20 procedures. Is used for the treatment of hemorrhoids, prostatitis, of proctitis and other
Steam shower (Fig., 12): vapor pressure of 1-1.5 am directed through the tip of a patient, who is at the distance of 0.5-1 m, the Temperature of steam at the skin of the patient 40-50 degrees. Procedure duration-10-15 min. spend every day on the course of treatment 12-15 procedures.
Saunas (dry air Finnish bath) - specially equipped premises with high temperature (70-90 degrees) and low humidity (relative humidity 10-15%), which perform hygienic and partly treatments.
To water procedures are also tubs (see).
Indications: cold and cool water treatment is used as a tonic remedy for stimulation of the nervous and cardiovascular systems, improve metabolism in obesity, with the aim of training and hardening; warm - for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases, affection of locomotor apparatus, peripheral nervous system, and so on; procedures with water so-called indifferent temperature (34-36 degrees), with increased excitability of the nervous and cardiovascular systems, disorders of vascular tone, to combat skin itch, and so on; procedures with hot water - violation of certain types exchange, as well as some kidney disease.
Contraindications: acute inflammatory processes, far advanced atherosclerosis and hypertension, severe decompensation cardiovascular activities, expressed and often repeated bouts of angina, myocardial infarction, stroke, malignant neoplasms, benign in the inclinations growth, bleeding and hemoptysis, tuberculosis in phase of destruction in the presence of a thermal reactions, infectious diseases, some skin (weeping eczema, a pemphigus, pustular diseases), and other
The role of nurses in the treatment is to control the preparation and dosage of water procedures Junior medical staff (banditami, soul, ramie and other) in accordance with the doctor's prescription, in the monitoring of portability procedures, the reaction to the procedure, to provide, if necessary, emergency first aid, registration and accounting of water procedures, supervision of health spas. Cm. also Balneary, Balneotherapy.

Water procedures
Water procedures. 1-4 - dousing: 1 - General, 2 - head, 3 - foot, 4 - back; 5 and 6 - rubdown: 5 - total (a and b consistent stages), 6 - partial, special mitten (a - hand b - legs); 7 - General wet pack (a - g - graded stages); 8 - the flying-off shower and remote control, b & e - effects with fan stream); 9 - rain shower; 10 (a and b) - circular shower; 11 - rising douche; 12 - steam shower.