Water

The water supply system of measures for providing of population, industry, transport, agriculture, troops and other consumers of water for drinking, household and industrial needs. Water supply can be centralizedwater supply system) and local (rivers, lakes, wells, etc). For sources and water supply systems is carried out preventive and current sanitary supervision and regular laboratory chemical-bacteriological water quality control.
When designing consider the need for water and techno-economic conditions, counting the need for water in the future, for example 10-15 years. In economic-drinking water supply water consumption norm are determined by the degree of improvement of settlement (tables 1 and 2 ).
Selection and estimation of quality of the source of centralized drinking water supply are manufactured in accordance with GOST 2761-57 (see water supply Sources). For utility and drinking water supply use sources that can be protected properly organized by the zone of sanitary protection (see Zone of sanitary protection, Sanitary protection of water bodies). Most suitable for these purposes deep groundwater, covered with a waterproof layer and protected from contamination of overlying layers of soil (see Artesian water), and only in case of insufficient stock them or unsatisfactory quality of use surface water or water of open reservoirs. Norms of water quality of centralized drinking water supply are established by GOST 2874-54 (table).
The water supply of cities and other settlements, as a rule, is provided with water supply. This system best meets hygienic requirements. The main water supply facilities are: water intakes, pumping stations of the 1st lift, facilities for water purification and disinfection (see Purification of drinking water), spare tanks for clean water, pump stations 2-nd rise of the water tower and the distribution system - the ring or the stub network of underground pipes with water devices (cranes of house connections and columns). If water is used, which does not require purification and disinfection (for example, cross underground water), the scheme may vary. In these cases may not have the facilities to clean or disinfect water.
When using groundwater pay special attention to the protection of the aquifer from pollution (isolation of the mine from surface water, ensuring tightness wellhead and so on). The distribution system is a network of underground pipelines - after packing and hydraulic tests should be washed and disinfected. Disinfection is performed by chlorine content of his 20 - 40 mg/l during the day or when the content 75-100 mg/l) - for 6-8 hours. Systematic chemical-bacteriological control of water (in the first turn it is necessary to control vodorosli in a cul-lines and columns).
For local water supply can be used by various sources (see Artesian water and water Sources, Wells).
Industrial water - system of measures on maintenance of industrial enterprises water for technological process, cooling furnaces and units, power steam boilers, and sometimes for household and drinking purposes (in the latter case to the water requirements of GOST 2874-54). Methods of preliminary processing of water in systems of industrial water (reduced stiffness, desalination, removal of iron, hydrogen sulphide , and so on) is very diverse, which is determined by the nature of the technological process, which uses water. Basically there are two systems of industrial water - flow, in which water after treatment is discharged into the water body, and the reverse, in which water after cleaning or cooling again used for production purposes, and the water from the spring comes only to make up for losses.


The water in the military field conditions - the system of measures for providing troops with water. When calculating the needs account for combat situations, time of year, the availability of useable water, available technology for its production, storage and transportation. Estimated norms consider: leisure and defence - 10 l per 1 person a day, in area provided with water and with a lack - 2,5 l; in mobile and combat - 6 l per 1 person a day; in the offensive and on the March 8 l per 1 person a day. In hot climates - 15 l (with a lack of water - 4 l) at rest and in the defense - 10 l (with the shortage of water is 4 liters) on the March. In specific environment command sets the norms for water consumption.
The extraction of water and, if necessary, its processing in the field carry out engineering units, organizing near water source water points. Delivery, storage and distribution of water in the units provides food service.
Paramedic units carry out sanitary-and-hygienic monitoring of water: take part in the exploration of sources of water, held engineering troops, check the water quality and sanitary condition of the area of the Spa, exercise control over compliance with sanitary and hygiene rules at the equipment and operation of water supply sources, observance of sanitary protection zones (see), for disinfection and decontamination of water (see Purification of drinking water), the correctness of its storage and transportation.
The purity of the water supply source is set based on the water quality analysis and evaluation of sanitary conditions surrounding the source of water supply, and sanitary condition of the place of the fence.
On the basis of intelligence and research results give recommendations on the suitability of water for other purposes, the activities aimed at improving the quality of water (purification, disinfection, etc.,), on the improvement of water sources (cleaning of the territory, protection of water from pollution, and so on).
During the drilling of artesian wells nurse monitors the sanitary conditions of the place of work, drilling tools and casing pipes; at the device of mine wells disinfects wall frame of 3-5% solution of bleach. Until a response is received laboratory water wells and well before use sterilized (boiling for 10 minutes or chlorination).
Individual water supplies (benign raw or boiled water or tea) from the military are in aluminium flasks. For disinfection using chlorine or iodine tablets (1-2 tablets per bottle). Water is allowed for use in 45 minutes after the addition of tablets in the jar. Medical team provides servicemen means for individual water disinfection and teaches the techniques of their use. During storage and delivery of water provided the conditions excluding its contamination and pollution (clean containers and so on). Tanks and other containers for storage and transportation of water periodically (once in 2-3 days), subject to disinfection (chlorination), make a mark about date of their content and purpose of water (drinking water, "economic needs", "for technical purposes"). Analysis of water of them is using a crane, pumps or dedicated buckets. Water reserves in storage refresh in 1-2 days or subjected to chlorination. In hot areas the water quality is rapidly deteriorating, so the water is subjected to chlorination through 12-15 hour. Storage of boiled water more than one day is not recommended dishes should be kept closed, and the diversion of water from it to make only by cranes. Jar periodically disinfected by boiling during 30 minutes
or glorious. Water supply troops are various personnel means: mobile drilling units, water pumps, autofallthrough station with capacity up to 8000 l/h, mobile desalination plant with the capacity of 300 l/h, the tissue-carbon filters (TUFF-200) with capacity of 200 l/h and other