Von Bezold and other

Go back a few years ago, again in Germany, in the laboratory albert Bezold. Bezold, exploring innervation of the heart the vagus nerve, convinced that the Central and peripheral his irritation leading to bradycardia (brake reactions of the heart), and lower blood pressure. It was published three years before Zion and Ludwig reported the results of their experiments with nerve-depressant. Bezold wrote that in his previous experiments blood pressure decreased and at the irritation of some centripetal twigs vagus nerve, coming from the heart in vasomotor center. Later he noted that these twigs on the pressure was stronger than the effect of the nerve roots. Then von Bezold arose audacious idea. It logically followed from his own experiences and experiments Ludwig with Zion.
If heart to vasomotor centre oblong brain go nerve signals (and they have to go, otherwise there would be no such nerves), this means that the heart is somewhere sensitive nerve endings - recipes that you can act stimulus suitable for this purpose. Let us remind the reader that abominables above work Kazan school morphologists led to the discovery of these receptors, but it happened several years later.
So, the stimulus for unknown receptors of the heart. Stimuli are mechanical, electrical, chemical... so, that's it! Chemical! For example, if you take the mortar veratrine - strongest poison, which is deadly in small doses. A very weak solution... And enter it the animal in such a place that it probably reached the receptors of the heart. For example, in the vein...
Stop for a short time to present the chisel cultivator albert von Bezold.
Known about his life a little, little and he lived for 32 years. At 25 years old, tall, thin young man is already a Professor of physiology in Jena. It happened in 1862; the same year there began to study the reliable community, already known to us from discussions with Zion about the mechanical heart. Bezold became a Professor at Jena University is not accidental. He was twenty-three year old student, when his night they woke curator of this University with a proposal to head the chair of physiology.
One of the brightest representatives of physico-chemical problems in physiology, Bezold, filled with inspiration scientist, was able to convey the passion physiology their students. With reliable community of Bezold ensued especially close friendship; in 1865 he published their joint work. Soon, Bezold married the sister of reliable community Louise.
Yes, now, if you enter a chemical irritant in venous bed animal, you probably thought Bezold be able to "touch" the same receptor end to the nerves that come from the heart to the vasomotor center. The result exceeded expectations. In response to intravenous veratrine arose what is now called the triad of Bezold. Here are its components: 1) bradycardia, that is, decrease heart rate; 2) lowering blood pressure; 3) stop breathing. Of course, slowing heart rhythm could be the result of direct action of strong poison on the cells of the myocardium. As a result of this slowdown could fall and blood pressure. Stop breathing, too, is not directly supported the ideas of von Bezold regarding the actions of veratrine to the receptors of the heart. From veins the poison came through the right half of the heart vessels in the lungs - is not this was the receptor field reflex? Yes and reflex does, maybe it was direct action that absorb substances on the respiratory center? How to check this?
You can close the road nerve signals, running from heart receptors in the vasomotor center. Albert von Bezold already knew what we give you, the reader, have not yet reported: that the centripetal nerve fibers of the heart belong mainly to the vagus nerves, and sympathetic nerves of the heart are mainly team about the frequent cuts, increasing their strength. Then it was not known that a small part of the Centripetal nerve impulses from the heart to vasomotor centers through the spinal roots. Apparently, this share information from heart is small, and therefore transection stray nerves makes it impossible reflexes to stimulation of cardiac receptors or significantly reduces their.
It happened in 1867, when it was published work brothers Zion about accelerating influence of the sympathetic system on the heart. Probably Bezold knew about it and therefore understood that to address the issue of reflex or dereflection origin reaction to veratrine enough to cut wandering nerves, without touching sympathetic. And here is vagus cut; now the introduction veratrine Vienna is a characteristic of the triad. This allows Baroldo and his employee Geert to insist that they received the response of chemical irritation of receptors of the heart. Such a message would have to say the sensation. However, the sensation was not. Why? Incomprehensible.
Bezold practically do not have time to "implementation" in the minds of contemporaries its opening - and died less than two years after the publication of this work. And the result was quickly and firmly forgotten.
Approaching the forties of the XX century. Already there was the second world war. And in this, it would seem, is not adapted to the progress of science time Century. N. Chernigov in the USSR and A. ARIS in Germany, not a thing, not knowing about each other, precise experiments proved the correctness of Bezold. ARIS complements the experiment of Bezold what has introduced a stimulus at the mouth of coronary vessels, and the fact that during the experience recorded the currents stray nerves of the heart, which participated in this reflex and whose role was quite obvious to Bezold. (Note the difference between conventional medical terminology and geographical. What geography calls mouth, has no analogue in anatomy, here is the mouth artery its beginning, and the mouth of Vienna - end, that is, in both cases; the most extensive part of the vessel.) The electrical activity centrifugal nerves of the heart sharply increased after the introduction veratrine.
In our days reflex called the reflex of Bezold-Arish. This is not such a frequent case of restorative justice. And it was more than necessary because of Bezold that so few had the opportunity to work in physiology (but to work with enviable Shine!) had only a year to understand that the heart is not only the pump, but also feeling the authority, and demonstrate this in a fantastically good for its time experiment. Only time higher technology was able to confirm his innocence and restore to life had almost disappeared from the name of science.