Medical control

Medical control system monitoring the health status of the population in General or specific groups prevention and early detection of diseases.
Medical control for particular groups of the population is carried out in respect of: (a) insured through the social insurance; b) workers employed in industries with harmful working conditions; C) employees of food industry, schools, medical institutions and others; d) workers and employees in order of medical examination; e) children and adolescents; (e) pregnant women; g) persons insured their life in the state insurance; C) persons engaged in physical culture and sports.
Medical supervision insured through the social insurance is mainly doctors and is to monitor the health of workers and employees that take leave from work due to illness; the quality of diagnosis and treatment (medical consulting Commission); implementation sick of the established mode.
The control of the insured, using sick leave, carried out in some cases and nurse, which in the absence of a physician is given the right to issue certificates of incapacity for work for a period of not more than two or three days; this applies in particular to the medical assistants, the head of first-aid stations in rural areas.
The medical supervision of workers that are employed in the industries with harmful working conditions is periodic medical examination (see). The list of these industries and professions is established by the USSR Ministry of health in agreement with the trade unions. At receipt for work in these industries are obligatory preliminary examinations. In periodic medical examinations along with the doctor involved attendants, especially in rural areas. The medical supervision of workers and employees in order of medical examination is systematic (with deadlines) monitor the health of these persons (see clinical examination). In relation to children, teenagers and pregnant women are also carried out medical examination system (surveillance in children's consultation clinics and antenatal clinics). Pregnant undergo medical control once a month in the first half of pregnancy, and in the second half of pregnancy or two times a month. Important medical supervision of children, especially the first year of life. Medical follow-up for children in the first month of life is carried out not less often than two times, the first year - once a month, the second year - once in a quarter, the third year - twice per year, from 3 to 7 years old - once a year. Role of secondary health care workers - feldshers, nurses, midwives - in this kind of control, especially in rural areas, is very high.
The medical supervision of persons in the order of life insurance is to address the question about possibility of reception of insurance; the insured is periodical medical control.
Medical control in physical education - systematic medical surveillance of persons, engaged in physical culture and sports. Medical control promotes better use of the physical culture and sports to promote health and physical perfection.
Mandatory medical monitoring is an important feature of the Soviet system of physical education (see Physical culture).
The basis of medical control - systematic medical examination of athletes, which helps to determine the state of their health, time to identify and resolve potential at the wrong lessons physical impairments (overwork and others), to outline the desired mode of exercise. Initial inspection required before beginning a regular practice any physical activity (employment of children in school, preparation for passing sports complex, sports training, and others). Especially need these surveys before the training children, people with poor health status, as well as people of elderly age. Re-examination is done usually once a year; they enable to determine the influence on the organism conducted practice, to make a conclusion about the required changes in their mode - to increase or decrease the load, change the duration and number of lessons, to transfer the student to practice in another group, and others, More than usual, surveys of athletes with deficiencies in health status, as well as athletes, the leading intense workout. Participants of sport competitions, hikes (especially with the big load) are pre-additional examination. Additional inspections of athletes is also necessary after the big interruptions to classes because of illness, injuries and other reasons.
In medical examinations of athletes studies of physical development (see Anthropometry) measurement of weight, height, circumference of the chest, the spirometry and dynamometry, as well as studies of the organs of respiration and circulation, and others In the result of the medical examination is made the conclusion about the state of health of the athlete, the recommended form of studies, admission to the competition and other reported to the heads of the classes.
Medical monitoring of the physical condition of athletes (measurement of blood pressure, pulse, respiration, assessment of the degree of fatigue in color of skin, respiration and movements) can also be carried out during sports training and competitions. Indicators normal effects of exercise on the body are: facial flushing, rapid, but deep breath, wisp increased heart rate and blood pressure; movements, gait remain confident that the General condition cheerful. On the contrary, an excessive load and a large fatigue (overvoltage) observed blanching face, sometimes cyanosis, severe shortness of breath, sharp and long increased heart rate, drop maximum blood pressure and a decrease in the amplitude of the pulse pressure, weakness, sluggish uncertain movement.
The great value has a systematic sanitary-and-hygienic supervision of the conditions of exercise. It includes: assessment of possibility of conducting trainings or competitions under particularly unfavourable weather conditions, observing proper San. the status and content of all places of classes - sports courts, skating rinks, sports halls, swimming pools for swimming and others (see Sports facilities). Special attention should be paid to measures to prevent possible when exercise injuries. Of all the shortcomings, celebrated with sanitary-and-hygienic supervision of the conditions of exercise, according to the heads of exercise or the administration.
Essential in medical control has also sanitary-educational work in the field of physical culture. The nurse can assist the physician in this work.
Together with the promotion of shared health values of physical culture in sanitary-educational work should also pay great attention to the explanation of basic hygienic rules of hardening (see), charge (see), the correct mode of exercise or sports training with regard to the working conditions and life of the athlete, the rules of food hygiene, clothing, shoes, body care. Details should be explained the importance of self-control in physical exercise and sport (see).