Feeding children in the first year of life

  • Nutrition of children of early age
  • After the birth of the child must be fed by mother's milk, which contains everything necessary for his growth and development, as well as protective antibodies and enzymes (see Breast milk). Digestion and assimilation of breast milk is happening with the least expenditure of energy. After birth, the mother and baby need to rest, so the first feeding is carried out through 6-8, after a maximum of 12 hours. In the first three days the child sucks 5-35 ml colostrum for one feeding, to the 7-th day - to 70 ml
    From the first days the mother has to follow the rules exactly breastfeeding: 1) to make the child every 3-3,5 hours alternately to each breast, night break 6-6,5 hour; if came the hour of feeding, and the child continues to sleep, then 15-20 minutes during the day it should be woken at night to Wake is not necessary; 2) before applying to a breast to wash your hands, wash nipple cotton wool moistened with boiled water; 3) that the child can breathe through the nose during feeding, finger to otdelyvat chest; 4) to hold her child to not more than 20 minutes, not giving him to fall asleep, but allowing short stop for rest; 5) after feeding to Express the remaining milk. These rules mother should teach in a maternity home, and she must keep them during the whole period of breastfeeding. Violation of rules can lead to decrease in quantity of milk in the mother and premature transfer of the child to artificial feeding.
    The daily amount of breast milk to the baby, define the following ways.
    1. For children the first week of life under the formula p (with a weight below 3200 g) or p (with a weight of over 3200 g), where n is the number of feedings.
    2. At the age of 2 months, the child should receive 800 ml per day; if the child is less than 2 months, he receives for each week of life on 50 ml less, and if more then 50 ml more for each month of life. 3. Children from 2 weeks to 2 months should receive daily food in quantity equal to 1/5 of the weight of their bodies; 2 to 4 months - 1/6; from 4 to 6 months - 1/7. However, the amount of food should not exceed 1000 ml per day.
    The number of feedings per day is associated with the regime of the day and depends on the age of the child. In a maternity home of healthy full-term baby feeding 7 times with a three-hour intervals during the day and six hours at night; keep this pace up to 3 months. Up to 5 months of the child fed 6 times a day intervals 3.5 hours and night 6.5 hours. From 5 months to 1 year 1 year 2 months.) child fed every 4 hours, 5 times a day with night interval of 8 hours.
    Contraindications to breastfeeding can only be severe state of the mother or illness of the mother for the child transmission (for example, open form of tuberculosis of the lungs). Mother with syphilis should feed her child, unless the infection did not occur in the last month of the pregnancy and the child has no any signs of the disease. Severe mental diseases, endocrine disorders, decompensated heart disease, severe diseases of blood-forming organs, intoxication are contraindications for breastfeeding. Acute infection of the mother does not always constitute an obstacle to the feeding (with the exception of Botkin's disease, typhoid fever and other diseases, causing bacteremia and virusima).
    Difficulties associated with congenital anomalies of development sucking apparatus of the child (cleft lip or palate , etc.) and a modified form of the nipple of the mother, overcome technically through the use of glass plates with rubber nipple. A sharp pain cracked nipples temporarily reduces lactation, but if there mastitis, feeding should continue. Children are weak, lazy piglets should be fattened expressed milk with a spoon. With insufficient weight gain should check the amount drained milk weighing; if you find that the amount of milk is not enough, then over 2-4 weeks of life the child add 1 per day 1 - 2 chain. L. curd (best of kefir), pounded with breast milk, to increase the quantity of protein in food.
    Rational nutrition nursing mothers and a sufficient quantity of milk all the needs of the child are covered breast milk. To prevent rickets and anemia 2 months give fruit juices with the purpose of introduction of vitamins and minerals, which are few in breast milk. Prepare juices just before feeding except juices sea-buckthorn, black currant, which can be prepared in advance, even in the home environment. To give juices carefully, starting from 5-10 drops and gradually bringing a few days before 5-6 chain. liter a day. If the juice is causing the child diarrhoea phenomenon, it is necessary to dissolve his 10-20 ml of water directly to the reception. For the same reasons from the 3rd month appoint mashed raw vegetables and fruits (apples, carrots, bananas), starting with 1-2 chain. L. and gradually bringing to 50 g (10 chain. L.). It is better to give throughout the day, various juices and purees.
    Complementary foods. With 4-5 month even when a sufficient amount of breast milk from mother to baby it is necessary to introduce complementary foods, which is not a replacement for milk (i.e. food), but contains new types of protein and carbohydrates, mineral salts, than in breast milk. Any kind of complementary foods should be given before breast-feeding, when the child has severe hunger, because all new and especially more dense foods often causes protest of the child. It is more profitable for the first foods to give a vegetable puree, more rich in mineral substances than porridge; if to start with liquid and sweet porridge, then some children stubbornly refuse savoury vegetable puree. For mashing it is better to take a variety of vegetables (potatoes, carrots, Swede) and boil them in cabbage broth. First puree plant to the consistency of cream with vegetable broth, and then milk; when the dose will be increased to 100 grams in a puree add 3 g of butter. After 6 months, you can use canned vegetables, mashed zucchini, green peas, etc. produced specifically for children. Timely introduction of vegetable puree is especially important for "threatened" by rickets in children is premature, from a sister, rapidly increase his weight and with exudative diathesis. In 5-5,5 months of the second complementary foods will porridge, best of cereal flour, buckwheat, oat or mixed.
    Any kind of lure start giving from 3-5 chain. L. and for 6-7 days lead up to 150 g; then, instead of breast milk add 50 grams of fruit or berry pudding or applesauce. After replacing two of breast-feeding dishes feeding add 30-50 g of cottage cheese to cover the growing demand in the protein. In 6 months, and on the testimony (premature, sick rickets and anemia), and in 4-5 months., enter eating egg yolk, cooked, hard-boiled and mashed with milk, beginning and bringing up to 1/4 1/2 egg yolks in a day. If the child has a poor appetite, in 7 months. you can give the meat broth - 50-70 ice to 1 year - 100 ml In 8-9 months appointed meat minced or mashed boiled veal liver on 5-20 g; the latter is especially indicated for anemia, when you can assign it even earlier. Meat alternate with yolk. With 9-10 months, when the child has 4 teeth, you can give meat or fish balls and steam burgers.
    For 9-10 months. the number of breast-feeding reduces to two in the morning and at night. After that, the child can be weaned from the breast without difficulties - breastfeeding replace 180-200 ml of whole milk or yogurt with 5% sugar. Contraindication for weaning from breast are acute illness of the child at the height and recovery, ahead or just produced vaccine safety, the child's contact with infectious patients, the hot season or the receipt in a manger.
    Breastfeeding provides not only the proper development of the child, but also increases resistance to infections. So the struggle for breastfeeding begins during pregnancy. Future mother should explain the importance of breastfeeding for the child. Pregnant should receive a full, varied diet, rich in vitamins (see Food, pregnant women), to spend more time outdoors. At the end of pregnancy a woman should be a daily wash with Breasts, gently massaging, pulling the nipples if they are flat. Nursing mother, in addition to a balanced diet should also drink tea, water with juice, but not milk which reduces appetite. Mode nursing includes a daily walk and sleep at least 7 hours a day.

    If adherence feeding healthy child weight increases still unsatisfactory, you should check the amount of milk drained by repetitive weight measurements before and after feeding. If the daily quantity of milk is not enough, it is necessary to check whether it is in the chest after feeding; in such cases, the milk should be to Express and to Supplement child with a spoon. Starving child clinically expressed by weight maintenance at the same level or even fall, scarce green chair and rare urination.
    Lack of milk may be caused sometimes psychogenic reasons: unwillingness to breastfeed or fear of a shortage of milk. In these cases, the authoritative guidance of a health care worker can be crucial.
    Determined by weighing the actual lack of milk, it is necessary to assign the additional feeding. In the first weeks of life of children with weakened, with an unstable chair, and in the hot season it is advisable to give expressed breast donor milk, although it is not equivalent to the parent. Donor milk is no more than 1/3 of the daily quantity in the weeks gives good results; with a large deficit have to switch to mixed feeding. The transfer of the child to mixed feeding should be started in the period of not less than 7-10 days. For this type of breastfeeding (as for artificial) is usually used cow's milk. Digestion and assimilation of another milk for the baby is very difficult. Therefore, the younger the child, the more you need to modify cow's milk by means of preliminary processing. Better to apply the acid mixture (enzymatic fermented) - yogurt, acidophilus milk, etc. as they first phase of digestion of protein - stvorazhivanii - occurs before entering the stomach. To reduce the amount of hard to digest proteins (casein) cow's milk it plant 5-8% solution of cereals - buckwheat, oatmeal or rice. The level of dilution is determined by the child's age, condition, peculiarities of the chair, and so on Milk at half breeding, the so-called mixture B, designate the child only in the first 2 weeks of life, before moving on to the mixture, containing 2/3 of milk. After 2 weeks mixture B may be only a transition mixture, if the child needs to be transferred to artificial feeding; in these cases, it gradually transferred to blend In, and after 3 months - on the whole kefir.
    If you are unable to get or keep fresh milk, especially in hot weather, can be used manufactured food or milk industry dry milk mixtures (see). When using dry mixtures it is necessary to monitor the timely and sufficient introduction of vitamins.
    With mixed feeding rules of administration and okarma differ from complementary foods while breastfeeding: to save the milk in the mother's breast supplemented milk mixture should be given after breast feeding. If the number of supplementary feeding is 1/2 of the daily diet, or more, to breastfeed need at least 3-4 times a day, otherwise the mother can lose milk.
    Artificial feeding is based on the same principles as mixed, the more that the transition to artificial feeding is usually after some period mixed. Sharp transition from natural to artificial feeding is observed in cases of sudden illness or death of the mother. For a basis it is possible to take certain schemes of artificial feeding, but it must be always individual. Calorie foods with artificial feeding should be higher by 12-15%, than in the chest; but in the beginning it is better to under-nourished than immediately overfeed of the child, as it can cause dyspepsia. In the future, should gradually increase the caloric content of food, mainly due to the increase of its concentration, not volume. When artificial feeding correct and age-appropriate mode of the child becomes immeasurably more important than breast, as in the gaps sharply reduced the processes of digestion and assimilation of food. No less important is the most thorough, systematic observation of the growth of weight, appetite, chair and behavior of the child. As in consumption, especially in artificial feeding vitamins you need to enter more than breastfeeding. The daily amount of food, the frequency of feeding and timing of the introduction of courses of complementary foods when mixed or artificial feeding are the same as in the natural.