Introduction

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It happened a long time ago. In the settlement of Ascri that stretches at the foothills of mount Helicon in Boeotia, the most extensive of Greek regions, there lived a peasant. He had two sons - Persian and Hesiod. Father all his life cultivated the land, and when he died, Persian fraud robbed brother share of the inheritance.
However, the Persian it didn't help - he still went bankrupt. And then Hesiod, obeying his poetic talent, wrote to brother didactic poem "Works and days".
Stung injustice, Hesiod appealed to those distant times, when everything was different. People lived like gods, without a care and deception. Even the sad old age to come closer to them did not dare:
Always equally strong
Their hands and feet. In feasts, they are a life spent,
And they died, as if seized with sleep. The lack
Was it anything unknown...
This time Hesiod called the "Golden age". Then it was much worse times.
Thought not only Hesiod, the son of a peasant from Boeotia, the famous Greek poet, who lived more than twenty-five centuries ago.
"Golden time", "Golden age", which allegedly began the history of the human race, sung in ancient legends of many peoples. Different were their creators, but these stories have a lot in common. They dream of returning in good time, when all the people as if they lived happily for a long time and was not sick.
Our view of the early childhood of humanity expounded many religious teachings, and Christian too. In the Bible, for example, says that the first people - Adam and eve - God created immortal and healthy and settled them in the garden of Eden. But Adam and eve violated the prohibition of God - ate the fruit of the tree of knowledge. God banished them from Paradise, deprived of immortality and health.
The Bible says that Adam, eve and direct their descendants a remarkable longevity. Adam died nine hundred and thirty years. All his sons lived not less. The long-term was Methuselah, the son of Enoch. "All the days of Methuselah were nine hundred sixty and nine years", - written in the Bible. The legend says this: "there were giants in the land..."
And maybe it's true? Let not lived nine hundred years, our distant ancestors, but still much longer than we have. Why not to be the "Golden age"? People don't huddled in a stuffy and noisy cities. They are not bent over books, not tired at work. Water and air clean, fertile fields, the animals are not frightened. On this earth only to walk to the giants.
Alas! What tales and religious legends tried to pass off as reality, never it was not. The reality was that the ancient people rarely live up to forty-five years.
How can we know?
There is a science - paleopathology. Studies she disease of our ancestors. There is a unique Museum. It is located in the Leningrad medical Institute. Its treasures are occupied several rooms and a long corridor. This is a carefully selected collection of bones of the human skeleton, but not simple, and with traces of various diseases.
Founded the Museum more than forty years ago Professor Dmitry Gerasimov Rokhlin. Since then arrive here many trophies archaeological expeditions. Skull, vertebrae, all the bones of the skeleton extracted from ancient tombs, examined using x-rays.
Perhaps, Dmitry Gerasimov Rokhlin knows that there was a Paradise, a carefree life of ancient generations. Hesiod wrote: "Always equally strong were their hands and feet..." Paleopathology, however, suggests another. Hands and feet more than other parts of the body experienced significant overload. Heavy physical work, a life full of privation, various diseases have left their distinctive marks on the bones of the skeletons of ancient tombs.
So, in the bones of the skeleton of Neanderthal x-ray found all those changes, which in our days is typical for the seventy-eighty-year-old people. When determined the age of the Neanderthal man, was that he was only forty years.
The exhibits of the Museum of paleopathology acknowledge and other people were hurt as much as they exist. More than that: there is disease, which appeared before the people themselves. They went to the man in the inheritance from the animal world from which he came.