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Allergic diseasesdiscussed in this section, known for a very long time, but the reasons for their long been understood even by outstanding scientists. Indeed, it would seem, what is common between such different in the clinic diseases as bronchial asthma and eczema, urticaria, swelling Kwinke and migraine? Their sudden, for no apparent reason, the emergence and rapid development for a long time could not explain, especially as diseases under the same conditions affect not all. This led to the emergence of the most daring, even fantastic hypotheses to explain the causes of these diseases. At the end of last century, they even called the psychic.
In the beginning of our century Richet and Portier discovered the phenomenon of anaphylaxis, which aroused great interest of scientists, mainly in the biological aspect. Then no one, including the authors, could not think that the mechanism of the phenomenon of anaphylaxis has much in common with such diseases as bronchial asthma. In a few years, after the accumulation of experimental data about anaphylaxis, the mechanism of this phenomenon is more understandable. This allowed to state a hypothesis about common pathogenesis of experimental anaphylaxis and asthma attacks.
It became clear that some diseases such as serum sickness, reaction to insect bites and the introduction of some medications, as well as hay fever, asthma, certain skin diseases medication origin, have much in common with the state of anaphylaxis in experimental animals (at the basis of immunological mechanism). Under some conditions a biological process, which aims to improve protective properties of the body against pathogenic agents, can bring the body into a state of hypersensibility to this agent.
The same immunological processes in the body can lead to two diametrically opposite States: the protection status and the state of defenselessness, dangerous for the life of this body. Thus, it happened that the word "immune" contains two diametrically opposed concepts. This caused confusion, misunderstanding and confusion in the presentation of the material.
The term "Allergy"proposed in 1906 Viennese pediatrician Clement von Pirquet, eliminate these contradictions. Pirquet United this term all phenomena of altered reactivity of the organism. The following line from the article Pirquet allow to assess the correctness and depth of judgments of this remarkable scientist.
"In recent years there has been a lot of facts that are relevant to the field of immunology, but hardly fit into normal for this area of the frame. This phenomenon hypersensitivity, which comes after immunization. These two terms are contradictory. Really, isn't immune organism that after the illness better resists, more resistant to the same infectious agent? As may be the same body hypersensitive about the same agent?
Immunity and hypersensitivity. Whether these two concepts together? The relationship between the immune system and hypersensitivity are best seen in the case of vaccination against smallpox. People who have previously received the vaccine, it is more sensitive than the person receiving the vaccine for the first time: it responds to the vaccine faster in the second introduction than the first time. However, this person immunized because in his introduction of the vaccine are indicated minimum display and there is no common symptoms. Thus, immunity and hypersensitivity are interrelated.
Of course, we need a new term for change the state of the body after the first contact with alien substance, as vaccinated organism responds to the re-introduction of the vaccine is not so, for the first. However vaccinated organism becomes insensitive to the vaccine, he changed reaction to its introduction.
To merge all phenomena of altered reactivity of the organism I suggest the term "Allergy". Vaccinated persons (for example, a person with TB or sick after administration of therapeutic sera) is allergosorbent against alien squirrel, which as a result of repeated injections into the body becomes "allergen". The term "immunity" must be left only for immunological processes that are not associated with such perverse effects.