Introduction

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Hypersensitivity is a new area of research, which in recent years there has been a new concept. In order to clarify these concepts, I offered new terms and hope that the introduction of these terms will facilitate the study of the interesting phenomena described above".
The term "Allergy" was a great success; it was adopted by clinicians and range of pathological conditions that explain allergies is increasing. Allergy is one of the types of immunological reactions.
Whether hypersensitivity one of the forms of common protective process in the body, which "becomes" the purpose (protection), or hypersensitivity is a phenomenon of an entirely different from the immune system and, on the contrary, even opposite to him?
Here's how it says Ch. Richet: "the question Arises as anaphylaxis is consistent with the General laws protect the body, because the body's defenses reduced if increases its sensitivity to the effects of toxins. However, it is worth Recalling that the protection of the organism is not only the protection of the species. We are talking not only about the body to maintain itself - you need to save all properties, characteristic for this organism.
If different alien substances could easily enter the body and implemented in the cytoplasm of cells, would change somatic structure of the body, specific for each type and acquired during the long and laborious selection. It is necessary that the condition of the body was stable, so it is with this energy responds to any chemical attack that he may corrupt".
This is a philosophical interpretation of some of the observed facts, contrary to the General laws of conservation, and the above arguments are controversial. The body takes the first introduction of alien protein and "reconciled" with him. The body recognizes this is a foreign substance without any damage to themselves and their posterity. Severe anaphylactic reactions occur only with the introduction of alien substances under certain conditions.
There are, however, strong opposition against the concept, considering anaphylaxis solely as a means of preserving the integrity of individual animals and entire species. In this case as to agree with this concept well known facts, when the body enters the state of sensitization to its own tissues? Such situations arise spontaneously, for example, after severe diseases, without any intervention of the experimenter. These are very important issues that are of great interest and give rise to many different hypotheses. Of these, the most acceptable is the hypothesis of Barneta. All immune responses, which include allergic reactions, are an expression of the body's ability to "read" his "own" and "alien" (self and non-self English authors). Instead of the usual question: "Why are foreign substances antigenic?" Burnet asks: "Why the body's own tissue are not antigenic?" It is quite clear that the body is "beneficial" take "on accounting" all their potential antigens (although significantly, but is limited to not react to them, and "to recognize and respond only to foreign antigens, which are practically unlimited. Clonal theory BERNET is that in the period of embryonic development in the body there are cells that are responsible for the recognition of clones of cells that could potentially be antigens in respect of premises, the body's own cells. Such potentially antigenic cell clones are destroyed "responsible" cells. Remain, therefore, only the body's own cells, which characterize the animal, and this type. On the concept of BERNET, removal from the body of potentially antigenic cells may be incomplete under certain conditions. In addition, these cells can come from any somatic mutation processes in life. This concept explains the fact of autouniversal. We shall not discuss the question of the admissibility of the concept of Barneta in General, however, note that it does not answer all the questions connected with autosecuritylua (there are several important objections). There is no doubt that clonal theory Barneta made a great contribution in modern immunology.

State Allergy occurs in the body as a result of exposure to various toxic substances. The doctrine of allergies is the branch of immunology; in the study of Allergy use the same methods and the same terminology as in immunology.
Of course, in a small section, it is impossible to describe all of immunological research methods and to stop all immunological terminology. Readers who are interested in these issues, we refer to specific guidelines.
The order of presentation of the material in the section following: first immunochemical characteristics of the processes under various allergic conditions of the organism, then the scheme of different types of tissue damage in the result of the reaction antigen - antibody. In the last part of the book discusses some allergic syndromes in experiment and clinic.