Introduction

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Research in the field of social gerontology are still in the development stage and creative searches. It faces the challenging tasks of development, deepening and expansion of such areas as social aspects of further increasing average life expectancy, and the dynamics of the ageing of population, the study of the social and health consequences of these processes, optimization of the lifestyle of the elderly person, the scientific substantiation of measures on preparation for retirement, to prevent "pension disease, the improvement of social service of the population belong to the "risk group".
In the conditions of the ageing population and increasing life expectancy have especial actuality of the problem of long-term preservation of working capacity and health of workers, ensuring their work load and conditions of the relevant professional skills and training, age and functionality of an aging organism.
In these areas are expanding research on geragosian labour, which is a part of gerontology. To determine the level of professional health of the population, the extent and nature of employment of the population of middle-aged and elderly (pension) age in modern production it is important to the development of social and demographic research. Knowledge of the regularities of formation of the age composition of employees and professional boundaries health allows to differentiate the activities of the involvement of labour of older people and equip this information state and economic bodies. Research conducted on the materials of the population census by broad occupational groups, allow to receive a lump-sum view of the status and forms of employment of the population of different sex and age in different branches of national economy, to identify specific program expansion age limits occupational health up to the level of age-related features of the ageing structure of the total employed population.
Social and economic feasibility of labour pensioners, earlier call in question, currently reflected in the state measures to ensure appropriate conditions and mode of operation. However, due to the diversity of occupations and working conditions in modern production and their dynamics in scientific terms, these aspects are not well understood. From successful development of General policy recommendations on organization of work of older largely depends on the implementation of decisions. Of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on the expansion and material stimulation labor activity of pensioners.
Socio-demographic and physiological-hygienic researches allow to conclude that one of the main directions of Gerogian should be theoretical and scientific-practical development aimed at a wide capability of specialists, organizing the work and its conditions. Among the priority tasks include:
1) development of objective criteria for the evaluation of the biological age of the individual professional groups and level of age-related decrease the performance and effectiveness of labour;
2) drawing up of detailed job descriptions and subsequent classification of occupations on the severity, intensity, harmfulness and hazards, according to sex and age of the workers.
3) clarify the effect of factors of production environment on the pace and nature of aging separate professional groups;
4) determination of optimal loads, working conditions, re" mode of work and rest for the different age-sex groups of the working population with the purpose of ensuring the necessary effect of trainings and long-term maintenance of occupational health;
5) selection and organization of relevant forms of content and scope of work for the elderly, lost the ability to work in a common rhythm and mode, but still keeps the desire to work;
6) development of organizational forms of professional re-orientation and training working in the factory for a more long-term preservation of health and the high efficiency of work;
7) organization of health care, health promotion and screening of the entire working population with the purpose of timely detection and prevention of early biological aging of various professional groups.
The study of these questions have already been held by the Institute of gerontology of AMS of the USSR and other scientific centers of the country. Some results of the research are reflected in this book.