Introduction

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One of the remarkable events of last time it should be considered a drastic reduction of infectious diseases and even the complete disappearance of some of them. Infection retreat. Among various diseases and causes of mortality of children they now occupy not the first, as in the past, and one of the last places.
Now mother don't live in constant fear of danger of infecting their children infectious diseases that previously claimed so many lives. After all, not so long ago the illness of a child some infections (for example, measles) is considered inevitable. Before the revolution, when the frequency of the vast and terrible epidemics of diphtheria, scarlet fever, measles, whooping cough in rare family had no losses. Annually perish tens of thousands of children. And how many from among the survivors and the survivors suffered from various protracted and chronic diseases, which were the consequences of these infections!
Why infection retreat, lose their aggressiveness? Is it not because they spontaneously decay and, so to say, to die a natural death? Of course not, although malignancy some of them in connection with the change of the properties of their agents has declined obviously. The retreat of infectious diseases is a consequence of the indigenous social reconstruction of our country, the progressive growth of its economy, the overall steady improvement of the material and cultural level of the population, increase of medical culture. It is also the result of the huge success of our medical science and health care.
Modern epidemic well-being achieved in persistent, persevering struggle price gigantic effort. Already in the first years of its existence, the Soviet government established a national energetic struggle with threatening dimensions of infectious diseases. In 1919 Century I. Lenin signed a decree on compulsory opepreveria. This act has predetermined a brilliant success in a fight with one of the most dangerous infectious disease - smallpox. With great acuteness Century I. Lenin raised the question of mobilization of all forces to combat typhus is a terrible scourge for people during the civil war.
And already in the first years of Soviet power, in the period of recovery of the national economy after the civil war and intervention, there has been significant progress in the fight against epidemic diseases. In the future, these achievements were growing and thriving, the Country was won by the epidemic front one victory after another: in 1926, was liquidated cholera, in 1936 - pox; dramatically decreased the incidence and many other infections. A great victory for our medical science and health was the abolition in 1952 mass of malaria. In 1960 the vast territory of the USSR was 99% exempt from this infection.
Since the beginning of 60th years of the struggle against many infections became especially active and purposeful; it became a major scientific problems and large nation-wide task, facilitated by a special Resolution of the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers dated January 14, 1960, This task was included in the Program of the CPSU adopted in 1961 XXII Congress of the party.
The result of the unfolding of the struggle, organized on a strictly scientific basis, was quick and sharp reduction of infectious diseases. Were particularly great successes against those childhood infections, the control of which is carried out mainly by using highly efficient mass immunization, i.e. the method of active immunization.
Success could be achieved only if the universal immunization of the child population. Because otherwise every unvaccinated child, remaining vulnerable to infections, could easily get sick and be a source of infection to others. Throughout the vast territory of the Soviet Union, in all republics, oblasts, cities and villages has done a lot of organizational work on immunization coverage against diphtheria, and pertussis total child population. And success was not long in coming. From 1959 to 1966, the incidence of diphtheria in the country fell 30.7 times. The extensive use of the newly created polio vaccine has allowed for the same term to reduce the incidence of this dangerous and crippling infection in 50 times; this disease has become a unique phenomenon. Application in a number of areas and republics created by the academicians A. A. Smorodintseva and M. P. chumakovym with employees effective measles vaccine has also been a great success - an unprecedented steep drop in morbidity.
In the fight against infections, especially with those dramatic impact on the incidence of which cannot be achieved mass immunization (e.g. intestinal infections), the huge role played by the General sanitation: improvement of an accomplishment of settlements, improving the culture of everyday life, sanitary culture of the population. The complex of these complex events were held in the country not only by health authorities, but also other agencies.