Introduction

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The changing age structure of the population poses new challenges to the public health and social welfare. To remain in the same positions for organization of medical assistance, despite the new requirements due to the change of use in medical institutions, the structure and nature of the disease, new terms of the provisions of the sick person in the family (the chronically ill And require constant care), a rapidly growing number of lonely, elderly and old people means to worsen medical aid to the population, not to keep up with the new requirements, due to its ageing.
Geriatric assistance to the population should be integrated not only medical and medico-social. Elderly and old people are, unfortunately, in most cases, and a sick man, burdened with not one, but several, as a rule, chronic diseases, and therefore he needs an increased volume of medical care and appropriate health and social care at home and in hospital. Shifts in the age composition of the population require resolution of a number of other issues of economic and social order, among which, the considerable place is occupied housing construction, organization of trade and other
Distinctive features implemented in the country studies in the field of social gerontology and geragosian is their complexity, the close relationship of the various problems of hygiene and physiology of labour, physiology of digestion and food hygiene, social hygiene, health care institutions and some other aspects of life of the older population, creative contacts with other scientific centers studying the issues of economy, legislation and law, sociology, psychology, etc.
This monograph major socially-hygienic aspects of gerontology also presented comprehensively. It is based on the materials of many years of comprehensive research conducted at the Institute of gerontology of AMS of the USSR. The book contains fundamental theoretical generalizations and practical recommendations. It highlights new challenges and conditions that so far not adequately reflected in domestic and foreign literature.
The diversity of the problems considered in the monograph, has identified the diversity of methodological approaches and the diversity of sources of learning in its separate sections. Depending on the specific tasks of the research results are presented on the basis of those or other age groups adopted in the Soviet and foreign literature: 1) in gerontological aspect for aggregate age groups with a 15-year interval: the average age (45-59 years), the elderly (aged 60-74 years), senile age (75 years and older), among which are long-lived (90 years and older); 2) in the socio-economic aspect, on the grounds of retirement: retirement, or senior worker, age and retirement, or older working age. The turn of the retirement age determined by the Soviet legislation.
The results of gerontological research hygienic and social plan are widely implemented in practice. Summary reference and methodical character systematically transmitted in planning, state and public organizations and institutions. Accumulated experience in the application of the recommendations hygienic procedure in the practical work of health care institutions, social security and other agencies. Provides improvement of professional skills of workers in some industries.