Introduction

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In the 20th century occurred extraordinary transformation of nature and society. They are associated with science and technology - the birth of nuclear power and cosmology, the rapid development of biology and Medicine, huge social transformation. For the first time for all time of existence of a civilization came and profound demographic shifts - dramatically increased the average lifespan of a man, was a significant aging of the population.
In most industrialized countries rapidly progressive change in the age composition of the population is already a serious problem. Every year life requires a more rapid resolution of issues put forward by reality, and this is particularly evident in relation to gerontology - the new section of biological and medical science.
Over the last three decades in the development of this science in the whole world has seen remarkable progress, to implement it in various fields of biology, medicine, Economics, sociology, practical health care and social security. Gerontology was at the crossroads of many Sciences and attracted various experts from studying aging at the level of molecules and cells to the governing socio-demographic policy of the state.
Gerontology today is one of the most difficult, synthetic Sciences, in which appeared the modern process of differentiation in science divide on the biology of aging, geriatrics, social gerontology and geragosian. However, you should consider the community, the integration of these areas of gerontology. The development of geriatrics as a science about the diseases people of elderly and senile age is closely associated with aging biology, physiology of aging of the human body. Problems cannot be solved without taking into account influence of environmental factors.
Occurred in recent decades changes in modern society, the nature of the person's lifestyle, scientific-technological revolution has transformed the form of dialogue of the man with the environment and has put forward the specific issues before hygienic science in General and social gerontology and gerogians in particular.
The task of the advanced socialist society aimed at the implementation of a number of new economic, social, medical, legal and other measures to extend active life and working ability of elderly persons and the problems faced by domestic gerontology, fully coincide with the major directions of development of medical science in the tenth five-year period specified in the decisions of the XXV Congress of the CPSU.
This monograph, written by leading specialists of the Institute of gerontology of AMS of the USSR, reflects the current state of research and development prospects in the field of social gerontology, geragosian, organization of geriatric care.
Obtained in a number of works on the problems of social gerontology demographic characteristics of the population of the USSR, Union and Autonomous republics, economic regions, individual cities, etc., allowed to reveal the extent of the ageing of the population of our country, its geographical features, character and determinants of the dynamics of this phenomenon.
Among the factors influencing on the process of ageing of population, in particular to increase the absolute number of elderly and old people, special attention was given to study of current trends in mortality of these contingents, their life expectancy, the connection between the dynamics of Divemaster to older ages and changes in the structure of mortality by main causes of death. In terms of research of this direction is updated several methods of studying nature mortality of older ages, taking into account the complexity of pathology and quality of medical diagnostics.
Soviet gerontology progress has been made in the study of geography and ecology of the population of the Soviet Union: on the basis of procedures and programs developed at the Institute of gerontology of AMS of the USSR, was able to clarify map longevity of the population of the USSR, to study the materials of a comprehensive survey in seven republics health and life long people to find out the role of a number of social and biological factors in the phenomenon of the longevity. This trend is particularly actively developing in Ukraine, Georgia, Belarus and some other parts of the country.
A special place in the socio-gerontological research took work to elucidate the role of the individual socio-economic factors in the health and longevity of the elderly population of the whole country and some natural-economic regions.
At the Institute of gerontology of AMS of the USSR in recent years been extensively studied such problems as the dependence of the health of the elderly the nature and way of their life, the use of free time. Complex development problems "the Situation of elderly people in the family and society", carried out in the laboratory of demography and health statistics of the Institute with the wide use of modern sociological and socio-psychological methods have provided a number of interesting data.