Factors influencing the choice of the type of dwelling for the elderly

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The housing problem for older persons closely related to a number of factors, the main of which are the social conditions of life and demography, health and psychophysical features elderly. The problem of resettlement of people depends on socio-demographic characteristics: sex, age, marital status, employment, etc. For the population of many countries is characterized by the predominance of women over number of men.
By marital status of the elderly can be roughly grouped into the following groups: single, couples and older who reside with adult children and relatives.
With age, the relative number of married reduced. The proportion of married women many times less than that of married men: the older people this gap is widening. A significant number of elderly living without a family, and some of them are utterly alone. The number of older persons living alone in 1959-1970, increased significantly. Most of them are single women. In the USSR, about one in five women over 60 years of age in the city and one in four in rural areas has no family (N. N. Lakiza-Sachuk, 1975). This category of persons, among which there were many patients who have lost working capacity, requires special attention from health authorities, social security, and public organizations. Some of the people in this category needs to stay in special homes for the elderly.
On the structure of families depends largely on the type of house, intended for temporary or permanent residence. Research conducted by the Leningrad zone scientific research Institute for standard and experimental design of dwellings, it is established that if after marriage before the birth of the first child is about 2 years, after the withdrawal of children from the family to the death of one of the spouses passes over a long period of 10-17 years.
For families with 3 children age of the parents, when they leave the children, defined 56-57 years. Life as a married couple can last for another 30-40 years. The conclusion from this is that older singles and couples relate to a stable population. Thus, the usual home for them must be designed for long stay. In contrast homes designed for single persons and couples young and middle generations, the family composition which is changing very quickly. However, the problem of settlement of the elderly is not limited to these criteria. Special attention should be paid to the settlement of families in which together with families or relatives live the elderly.
The process of urbanization means not only the growth of the urban population, but also a sharp increase in the size of cities. With great acuteness conflict megamania communication old parents and their children. Recently, in many countries, especially in large cities, there is a tendency to split the reconstituted families, consisting of elderly parents and their family children. Meanwhile, many families giving them a common household, vzaimoponimanie, economic and psychological liability and after the partition is often not lose family ties. In large cities these family ties in most cases violated due to territorial isolation families. their disaggregation is mainly due to the relocation of the young generation in the areas of new building, usually very distant from homes where parents remain. Break family ties (isolation from children) especially painful carry elderly parents, which often leads to a deterioration of their mental and physical condition, to partial or full disability that requires special organization of care for the elderly.