High-molecular compounds

High-molecular compounds and polymers - substances with a high molecular weight (from a few thousand to several million). Natural high-molecular compounds(biopolymers) are proteins (see), nucleic acids (see), polysaccharides (see), and so on, To synthetic - various plastics (see), synthetic rubber and fibers. Macromolecular compounds - products of chemical compounds (polymerization or polycondensation), a large number of low molecular weight compounds (monomers), playing the role of individual units in a macromolecule polymer; the monomers can be the same (for example, from ethylene - polyethylene) or different (for example, the remains of different amino acids in proteins). Macromolecules of high-molecular compounds have a linear or branched structure; when connecting them cross ties occur three-dimensional polymers (vulcanized rubber, plastics, tanned collagen and so on).
Biopolymers do in the body of the important functions is the management of metabolism (protein), transmission and storage of genetic information (nucleic acids), protective and energy function (polysaccharides), and so on, In some cases more complicated and specific functions perform mixed polymers, - ugleavtomatika (immunospecificity substances), nucleotidase and other Biopolymers, as a rule, have comparatively simple basis (for example, polarisational chain in nucleic acids, nucleotides in proteins). Functional information recorded in the primary structure, i.e. depends on the sequence of nucleic acid bases (in nucleic acids or amino acids (proteins). Primary structure defines the secondary and tertiary, i.e. the location of the macromolecules in space, and this in turn determines biochemical function of the joints. The more subunits included in structure of macromolecules, the more subtle and complex functions it can perform. Molecules of DNA (the"plan" center cells) are saying. weight 107-108. Proteins, transfer RNA - "Executive bodies", have a molecular weight 104 and perform more limited functions.
Since the physical properties of the matter are a function of molecular weight and architectonics molecules, high-molecular compounds differ sharply on physical and chemical properties of components from their subunits. A characteristic feature of biopolymers - ordered arrangement of parts of the macromolecule. Temperature effects, changes in pH and salt concentration lead to the destruction of the highest structures of macromolecules.
Among the synthetic macromolecular compounds used in medicine, it should be noted polivinilpirrolidon (PVP), polymethylmethacrylate, "hydrophilic plastics". They serve blood substitutes, are used as material for bone prostheses, etc. Perspective the application of silicone adhesives for bonding skin. and muscles (instead of stitching) after surgery. "Hydrophilic plastics", can absorb up to 60% (the rake) water without changing the size and strength, used for the manufacture of contact lenses, to replace body tissues and so on