The higher nervous activity

Higher nervous activity is a complex form of the nervous system, based on the totality of conditioned reflexes that ensures the perfect adaptation of animals and humans to changing environmental conditions. Higher nervous activity is the result of joint activities of various parts of the brain - the cerebral cortex and subcortical structures (see Nervous system).
The doctrine of higher nervous activity created I. P. Pavlov and his school as a result of scientific analysis of the basic physiological principle of operation of the Central nervous system, of the principle of the conditioned reflex. Interplay and consistency of the conditioned reflex reactions enable him the most precise way to adapt to the slightest changes of the environment. The complexity and diversity of the higher nervous activity in several animal and person closely associated with the development of a bark of the big hemispheres of the brain that plays a leading role in the mechanism of formation and inhibition of conditioned reflexes. The conditioned-reflex excitation occurs when any indifferent conditional stimulus repeatedly supported unconditional (see Unconditioned reflexes, Conditional reflexes). Along with the conditioned reflex excitation of the Central nervous system are the processes conditioned reflex inhibition (see Braking). There are two types of braking: external (unconditional) and internal (conditional).
The interaction of the processes of the conditioned reflex excitation and internal braking allows the animal and people navigate in the most difficult situations. This is achieved also by consistency in synthetic activity of the cerebral cortex. If people every day makes approximately equal and consecutive time steps, different stimuli, which is the conditional relative to perform the action, creating the stereotype of their execution. The system excitations, resulting in a bark of the big hemispheres and leading to the certain sequence of behavioral acts committed, is called the dynamic stereotype. Sharp violation of dynamic stereotype formed throughout a person's life, can be a reason of different diseases development (for example, neuroses).
The higher nervous activity in some species of animals and people has individual features that are different speed and strength education of conditioned reflexes, in the intensity of internal and external braking, speed irradiation and concentration of nerve processes. The combination of these features, determines the type of higher nervous activity. Experimental studies were established four main types of higher nervous activity in dogs that on the most important parameters (strength, mobility and balance of processes of excitation and inhibition) coincide with the four temperaments of the people. The type of strong, unbalanced, with a predominance of processes of excitation coincides with the choleric temperament; the type of strong, balanced, sedentary - with phlegmatic temperament; the type of strong, balanced, flexible - the sanguine temperament; type weak, bystroley, sedentary - with melancholic temperament. People with pure type of higher nervous activity does not happen, everyone can identify the advantage of a type that defines a shared his behavior.
The main regularities of the higher nervous activity are common in animals and humans, for which any stimuli outside world can serve as a signal conditioned reflex reaction. Analysis and synthesis of these signals in the Central nervous system are the first signal system. In humans, unlike animals, along with first there is the second signal system associated with it. The word for man is not only sound, but also a meaningful signal. The development of verbal alarm has made it possible generalization of a man of many surrounding phenomena. The ability to generalize sharply elevates the consciousness of a man above the level of the primitive mentality of an animal.
The first and the second signal system of the person are inseparable from each other. Only the child to be acquired by it, and the adult in cases of pathology may separate the first signal system. Features of interaction of two signaling systems allow you to uncover the basis of the reflection of reality in the mind of man. The laws of the higher nervous activity enable physiologically to explain many phenomena of the human psyche.