Shot and his accompanying phenomena

For the implementation of the shot curb the cartridge is inserted into the breech of the barrel (the chamber) of firearms, then the barrel is locked gate or nuts, having special impact mechanism. During the descent the shock mechanism fires the cap cartridge. Shock is initiating substance through bare hole in the case bottom ignites the powder.
At the moment of ignition the gunpowder from solid almost instantly (thousandths of a second) turn into gas. Developing Chuck pressure reaches 400-700 ATM in the smooth-bore hunting weapon and 2000-3000 ATM and more in combat rifled weapon.
Fractional shell or bullet popped out of the socket and start its journey along the barrel bore. Fractional shell in the barrel bore is gaining speed of 500 m/S. Following the roll out of the barrel flies and the wad. The velocity of a bullet from a channel rifle is much higher: commercial - 600-900 m/s, military - to 1800 m/s and more.

the mechanism shot
Fig. 57. The mechanism of the shot.

At the moment of firing range pushes the air that is in the barrel before the bullet (predpolesie air). He is thrown out of a bore in a jet with a speed equal to the speed of a bullet. With a certain mass, predpolesie air develops kinetic energy reaching 3-4 j. In close proximity (3-5 cm) from the muzzle end of the barrel it can cause damage in the form of injury or sadnenia ring-shaped form (the ring air sadnenia) and form a skin defects. Together with predpolojim air crashes a small part of gases shot, burst due to insufficient sealing between the projectile and the barrel. The motion of a projectile by the barrel bore to the gas pressure is shot in the barrel falls due to a higher level, they begin to take. At the time of departure of the projectile from the trunk and thrown products of burning gunpowder at a rate considerably higher than that which acquired the projectile. Thus, the bullet some time moves in a cloud of gases shot (Fig. 57). Themselves gases shots have little heat, but high impact action, contain, in addition to combustion products of initiating substance of the capsule and powder, and even metal particles formed at friction of the bullets on the wall of the trunk. They are all related components of the shot. When passing through the barrel bore in rifled weapons the bullet does about one turn around the longitudinal axis (in different weapons systems in different ways, depending on the length of the trunk). Although the rate of rotational motion is significant - up to 3000-4000 rpm With a certain mass and significant speed bullet gains greater kinetic energy (several thousand joules), which is spent for overcoming the resistance of the environment in which you are moving the bullet.

sign Vinogradov
Fig. 58. Sign Vinogradov.

When driving in the air bullet ahead - at the head end - seals the air. Behind bullet formed sparse topolinoe space and vortex trail. Lateral surface bullet interacts with the environment in which it is moving, and passes to it the part of the kinetic energy. The border with bullet layer environment due to friction gets some speed. Powdered metal particles and soot shot can be transferred together with a bullet (in sepolno space) on a significant distance (up to 1000 m) and deposited around the input bullet holes as on clothes and on the body. This phenomenon has several peculiarities: there should be high speed of a bullet (in excess of 500 m/s), soot deposited on the second (bottom) layer of clothing or skin, not on the first layer of clothing, as happens when shooting at close range. Unlike shot from close range deposition of soot in these cases is less intensive and takes the form of radiant halo around the opening, pierced by a bullet (sign Vinogradova, Fig. 58).