Traction - remedy through thrust deformations arising at fractures, dislocations and contractures. There is a one-time extension and permanent. Simultaneously stretching is done manually and mainly serves to reposition (see)
fragments of fractures, allows you to immediately achieve the correct them standing, but to lock in the position reached must complete traction fixed bandage. At constant (continuous) traction position of fragments or articular ends of the bones gradually being rectified, helps retain them in place until healed fracture. Often constant traction impose after the simultaneous reduction, as well as in cases when it fails. Constant traction can be achieved gradual correction of contracture.
When spondylitis constant traction provides peace of the affected vertebrae and the main unloading that prevents hump and other deformities of the spine.
Constant traction is cargo, attached to the skin adhesive strips (lipoplasties traction) or the metal pins, staples entered in the bones,skeletal traction. The last is most effective. For skeletal traction, it is preferable to use a set of Kirchner (see Orthopedic tools), as thin needle that set less damage the bone.
tractionSkeletal traction widely used in fractures of the hip, shoulder, tibia usually after one-stage reposition.
In addition to thrust in length, often required and the lateral traction circular soft bandage (lateral displacement of bone fragments).
Skeletal traction is applied by a doctor in strict compliance with the rules upgrades. The nurses carries out preparation of the Toolkit, patient and follow-up for him.
The technique of imposition skeletal traction next. In the area of intended entry and exit spokes (Misaki hips, tuberosity of the tibia, the heel bone, olecranon) skin treated with alcohol, alcoholic solution of iodine. Anaesthesia local 1 % solution novokaina. The spoke, charged in the drill, injected to the bone, to carry through the bone and put on the other hand. The skin in the area of wkola and Mykola spokes impose 2 gauze stickers. Then spoke with special arc pull up to the required limit, firmly fixed in the arc and connect with cargo. The weight of the latter depends on the magnitude of displacement, the localization of the fracture strength of the muscles of the patient.
Lipoplasties traction may impose a medical assistant under the supervision of a physician. It is used to fight contractures with fractures of the shoulder (Fig. 1)for stretching the skin on amputation stump, fractures in children (Fig. 2) etc. Sticky patch sometimes causes irritation of the skin, so for traction, you can apply a gauze, bumazhnye or flannel tape stuck to the skin using kleola or paste Unna.
Spine traction produce head loop Glisson with further raising of the head end of the bed (Fig. 3).
When vertebral fractures sometimes resort to skeletal traction bones of the skull special bracket (Fig. 4).
At constant traction need to strictly monitor the conservation attached limbs provisions for proper action of equipment, with the condition of the skin in the area of the input and output ends of the needles. At change of the load (as instructed by the doctor) should not be allowed gross pull the cord, even short-term termination of thrust. When skeletal traction pain in the area of location of the spokes, fever alarm signals, which should immediately be reported to a doctor.