Export cleaning system

Export system of clearing settlements consists of the collection, removal and disposal of waste and sewage.
The first treatment stage, when the system is hygienically properly organized collection and storage of sewage and waste. For collection of liquid waste are arranged pit and the miry pit. When their device you need to ensure that sewage does not pollute the soil, groundwater and air.
Latrines consist of underground part (septic tank) and ground parts. To waterproof cesspool bottom and its walls are made of concrete, brick or tarred logs. Around cesspools placed a layer of soft clay with a thickness of 30 cm (earthen castle). The hole well shut tight lid for protection against flies.
The most perfect type of latrines are the so-called gap-closets (air closets).
The backlash-closet is arranged in one-and two-storey buildings. To ensure good hood canal backlash-water closet is located near the chimney from cooking or heating furnaces. Because of the temperature difference creates a constant movement of air from the room the toilet through the hole of the toilet seat in a cesspool, from pit latrines through a vent on the roof of a building (Fig. 7).

diagram of the device backlash-rest rooms
Fig. 7. Diagram of the device backlash-rest rooms in the single-storey house.

For proper ventilation must be properly arrange the backlash-closets. In the toilet space should not be panes. Cesspool must be sealed and to communicate only with fanboy pipe and exhaust pipe. It should be warmed with the help of peat, pour over the floor.
In recanalizing settlements are building yard latrines. Septic tank for such latrines arranged according to General rules. The ground part of them should be large enough to securely close the door from the flies, to have good lighting, exhaust pipe (Fig. 8).

domestic cold restroom
Fig. 8. Domestic cold restroom.

For the reception and disposal of sewage in the field are field ditches, which are of the groove depth of 0,6 m, the width is 0.3 m in length at a rate of 1 running meter for 30 people. On the edge of the groove put boards, which become the legs. After using sewage immediately covered with earth, and after filling the ditches on 3/4 of the depth of their close and dig up new ones.
Cesspits arrange for discharge and storage of slop in the export system. Cesspits consist of ground and underground parts. The underground part is arranged as well as septic tank latrine. The ground part is a wooden or brick box with a tight-fitting lid and bars at the bottom, which delayed the larger particles. The contents of the miry pits are taken at least once a month. The soil around cesspits asphalt or covered with a layer of compacted clay (Fig. 9).

the garbage dump
Fig. 9. The garbage dump.

Garbage is collected in bins, which are found in homes, yards, streets. Waste collectors must have cover to protect against flies, atmospheric precipitation. The garbage from the apartment assure you need daily to pour out in the yard, which can be stationary or portable. Waste bins located in the courtyard, must stand covered with asphalt sites at a distance of not less than 15 m from the house.
The second stage of cleaning of populated areas is to remove waste and sewage. When the export system of liquid waste are delivered to the place of disposal in special casks. Drums have different device, depending on the way of their filling. The most primitive barrels filled with scoops. This method does not meet sanitary requirements, as if filling barrels partially liquid is bottled and pollutes the outer surface of the barrel and the soil.
More perfect pneumatic barrels and tank trucks. Pneumatic barrel airtight and filled with a pump. Pump, air pumped out from the barrel, it creates a vacuum, causing the liquid out of the pit enters the hose in a barrel. The pump is driven manually or motor.
The removal of solid waste produced by the FSD (horse carts) or special vehicles - trucks. Transport for transportation of waste shall not pollute the air and the territory on the movement.
For the collection and disposal of solid waste there is a system of removable and permanent tableware. When the system re-ware filled tanks taken away, and put the net. In places of neutralization tanks are empty and at special points wash. When the system of permanent tableware solid wastes are collected in the yard tanks. The contents of the tanks every day throw it in the garbage trucks and transported out of the city.
The system of permanent tanks is hygienically unsatisfactory, as it often does not provide adequate maintenance of tanks, and peresypaya waste pollutes the courts.
Shift systems are more expensive, but is hygienically more perfect.
All types of transport for transportation of sewage must be stored, repaired and cleaned in a special slurry tank parks, located near disinfection of garbage.
The third stage in the purification system of settlements under export system is the disposal of sewage and waste. The best method of neutralization of liquid sewage and soil. To this end arrange field sanitation and field zapugivaniya.
Field sanitation are designated territory, divided into separate sections (map), which in turn poured liquid sewage and replowed. After 2 years they are used for growing industrial crops, and in 3 years on these fields can be cultivated crops, as by this time die pathogenic microflora and eggs of worms.
The land plot allocated for the fields sanitation, should be located outside the village, at a distance of not less than 1 km away, on the leeward side, away from sources of water supply. He should be well lighted by the sun.
The lack of land for disposal of liquid sewage applied fields zapugivaniya different from the fields of access to sanitation is the fact that they are not cultivated crops. Therefore fields zapugivaniya have greater performance.
For neutralization of solid waste and applied bio-thermal method, based on the ability of solid waste to camongrevis owing to the activities of thermophilic bacteria in the thickness of the waste. To biothermal methods include composting and disposal in improved landfills.
For neutralization of waste on the plot gets a compost pile. Thus you save money on export of waste: the compost is used to fertilize the garden or vegetable garden.
Compost pile arrange on a flat, hard-Packed clay ground, a minimum distance of 20 m from the home or the well. Around her do a flute to drain fluid.
Laying waste produced in layers: the layer of garbage and sewage 15 cm thick layer of peat or horticultural land and so on, the Compost pile shape of a truncated pyramid width at the base of 2-3 m above 1-2 m, length 3-5 m, a height of 1 m Above the compost heap install the awning for protection from erosion by precipitation. For better aeration of compost heap produce shoveling 1-2 times during the ripening of the compost 5-12 months depending on climatic conditions (Fig. 10).

the scheme compost heap
Fig. 10. The scheme compost heap (cut).

For disposal of large amounts of waste organize field composting, which also arrange on a flat, non-inundated areas, remote not less than 50 m from residential areas and water sources.
In large cities arrange waste sorting station, where valuable scrap for industry. Garbage trifle use as fertilizer.
Organic residues are incinerated, and the generated heat is utilized.
Disposal of waste can be produced and improved landfills. For them assign a special polling station at a distance of not less than 500 m from the accommodation. Garbage in landfills fall asleep insulating layer of not decaying materials (earth).
Yard and street estimates, as well as construction waste disposed of in landfills and covered with soil layer with a thickness of 0.25 to 0.5 M. at the same time level of the area. To bury the dead animals on the dumping is prohibited.