Adonoy apparatus and physico-chemical properties of poison

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Adonoy apparatus snakes consists of agroproducers glands, excretory ducts and doprovodem teeth. The most complex and perfect adonoy machine Viper (Viperidae) and alkoholowych (Crotalidae) snakes. The teeth are fixed on a short maxillary bone able to rotate, as you close your mouth lie along the jaw point ago, when disclosure is lifted and accept steep, "fighting" position. For poisonous colubrid snakes (Colubridae) characteristic grooved teeth located on the upper jaw backwards; for elapid snakes (Elapidae) and sea (Hydrophiidae) snakes - short fixed tubular teeth at the front of the upper jaw. The length of the teeth in common Viper 0.5 cm, the Gabonese - 3-4 see They are thin, sharp and fragile, easily, like a needle, digging into the soft tissues, when meeting with a hard object slip and break down. Broken teeth, and as naturally, dropped, replaced adjacent teeth-deputies. Inside or on the front surface of the teeth there is a channel. The Viper he is deeply and opened at the end of the tooth.


Fig. 9. The head of poisonous snakes. and is visible iron producing poison; adonoy canal that opens into the base Aganozero tooth; b - open mouth lebetina Viper; see two econonic tooth and language.

At the base of the teeth are ducts agroproducers glands, consisting of numerous bubbles of different size and shape (Fig. 9). The lebetina Viper, sand Echis, the steppe and ordinary Viper adaptatsiya iron branched, tubular, with one outlet duct. The vipers back her Department more front. Caudal tube anterior form a partition of the type of valve, allowing you don't mix secret departments in a calm state. When histochemical study in departments identified alkaline phosphatase, connective partitions acetylcholinesterase; in the secret of the rear Department of acetylcholinesterase little, and in the anterior there's none at all. In the front section assumes that you have hyaluronidase, which is a conductor of neurotoxin across the blood-brain barrier, as evidenced by the inactivity of toxic secret posterior before mixing it with a non-toxic secret anterior (A. M. Zakharov, 1968). Therefore, the toxic effect is achieved by mixing the secrets that occur when a bite.
The amount of venom glands depends on the physiological state of the snake, the time spent her on the outside and passed since the last bite, from the gender and age of the snake, climatic conditions, etc., Have a hungry snake venom more than full, males more than females (p <0.05), while the toxicity almost the same. Residual poison much less toxic (Wiener, 1960). In that glands in common Viper venom about 30 mg, sand Viper and Cobra - 200 mg; in a rattlesnake - 300-370 mg (A. N. Kashkarov and centuries Stanchinsky, 1940). The amount received in one - dried venom steppe Viper 8-10 mg, coral snakes - 9-30 mg, tropical vipers, asps and rattlesnakes - 200-300 mg or more (Boquet, 1964). The dry weight of the poison received from Notechis scutatus,of-2.1-53,9 mg (Wiener, 1960), brown V. lebetina from Morocco -94 mg (Duguy, 1958), Tr. gramineus - 1-23 mg for electrical stimulation of the Cr. atrox received 354 mg, and without it - 228 mg dry poison. The amount allocated snake venom by the bite is different (S. I. Ognev, 1939; A. N. Kashkarov, centuries Stanchinsky, 1940, and others): a Cobra 0,04-0,19 g (average of 0.08 g), steppe Viper - 0,005-0,03 g (0.01 g), lebetina Viper -0,01-0,3 (0,06 g), the Echis -0,008 - 0,05 g (0.02 g), the cottonmouth -0,003-0.1 g (0.04 g).