The industrial poisons

The industrial poisons (professional or industrial) - chemicals used in production and have a harmful effect on the human body in violation of the rules of safety and health at work.
Industrial poisons often cause chronic intoxication. There are several stages of reaction organism to chronic effects of industrial poisons: primary stage of decompensation, stage of compensation (the so-called addictive) and secondary stage of decompensation, which steadily goes stage of addiction. Thus, adaptation to industrial poisons should be seen as something dangerous and unacceptable.
It is established that discontinuous (intermittent) effects of industrial poisons usually more harmful than the same poisons in constant (average) concentrations in the same period of time.
At influence on the organism of some industrial poisons noted the occurrence of malignant neoplasms.
Influencing the body of the parents and on the fruit ofsuch industrial poisons, heavy metals, including lead and mercury, aromatic compounds, nitro - and amino compounds, halogenated hydrocarbons (in particular, chlorinated), organophosphorus substances, various radiometricheskie connection can provide gonado - and embryo tropic action, teratogenic and mutagenic effects on the offspring.
The basic ways of prevention of the effects of industrial poisons on the human organism: (a) exception to the technology of the production of highly toxic and dangerous poisons or replacing them with less toxic and less dangerous; (b) shortening (if necessary) of the working day and the increase of holidays for persons in contact with poisons; C) adequate ventilation (see), one of the basis of calculation of which is the establishment in the air of working premises maximum allowable concentration of industrial poisons; d) the wearing of protective clothing (see), the use of a gas mask (see), respirator (see) and in if necessary, other means of protection (protective pastes, ointments and other); d) organization of the shower with daily change (if necessary) production of underwear;
e) periodic health examinations, development of contraindications for working with industrial poisons, treatment-and-prophylactic nutrition, drug prevention (the relevant ingaljatory and so on), physical culture;
g) scientific justification of acts of sanitary legislation, in particular in the field of hygienic standardization of environmental factors.
Very important is the establishment of maximum permissible concentrations of harmful substances in the air of working zone, i.e. such concentrations that in the daily work within 8 hours during the working experience cannot call the working of diseases or abnormalities in health status, find modern research methods, directly in the process of work or in remote terms (see table). Maximum permissible concentrations are required sanitary norms intended for the design of industrial buildings, technological processes, equipment and ventilation, as well as for carrying out preventive and current sanitary supervision and other types of control sanitary regime in production conditions and to assess the effectiveness of corrective actions. Enterprises and design organizations need to reduce the content of harmful substances in the air of working zone below the maximum allowable concentration specified by these regulations.
Compliance with the EQS should be ensured first and foremost by the appropriate organization of technological process and streamline the equipment in accordance with the requirements of sanitary norms. While content in the air of working zone of several harmful substances unidirectional actions (for example, hydrogen fluoride and salt hydrofluoric acid; sulphur and sulphuric anhydrides, various chlorinated hydrocarbons, various alcohols; carbon oxide and nitric oxides and others) calculation of General ventilation should produce by summing the volume of air required for dilution of each substance separately to its maximum permissible concentration taking into account the pollution of the fresh air. At the same time allowed for the design and sanitary inspection should be considered as such concentrations (C) of harmful substances that meet the formula:
, i.e. the sum of relations actual concentrations of harmful substances (C1, C2,... JV) in air of premises to their maximum permissible concentrations (PDK, PUK2, ... MPCs)that are installed for their stand-alone presence, should not exceed 1 (one). While selection of multiple gases and vapors, do not have the same character actions, such as drug in combination with irritant harmful substances, the amount of air in the calculation of General ventilation can be assumed on the harm which requires filing of the highest volume of clean air.
The calculation method of General ventilation and control over concentration in the presence of several air of harmful substances in each case accepted in coordination with the State sanitary supervision with respect to the nature of the actions of the mixture.
The joint action of chemical and physical factors of production environment, as well as severe physical activity and other special conditions the need to change the maximum permissible concentration in each concrete case is solved by the State sanitary supervision.
For harmful substances, maximum permissible concentrations which are not listed in the regulations, the time of maximum permissible concentrations and conditions of use of these substances in each case are established by State sanitary supervision.
MAC and standards are constantly reviewed and completed.
Medical aid in case of poisoning industrial poisons - see Poisoning (table), as well as articles about individual industrial poisons.
Table: Maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of hazardous substances in the air of working zone (CH 245-71 pages: 1 2 3 4
* If the duration of work in an atmosphere containing carbon oxide, not more than 1 hour maximum permissible concentration of carbon monoxide can be increased to 50 mg/m3, the duration of operation is not more than 30 minutes up to 100 mg/m3, the duration of operation is not more than 15 minutes-up to 200 mg/m Re work in conditions of the increased content of carbon monoxide in the air of working zone can be produced with a break of not less than 2 hours.

Very important is the establishment of maximum permissible concentrations of harmful gases, vapors and aerosols in the air of the breathing zone of workers, i.e. such concentrations of chemical substances in daily exposure during the working day at long work at the enterprise cannot call the working of occupational diseases or any deviations from the normal state.
The establishment in our country of maximum permissible concentrations maximum during the shift allows better protection to the staff than adopted in some foreign countries interpretation of maximum permissible concentrations as srednestan. Medical aid in case of poisoning industrial poisons - see Antidote.