Succinic acid

Amber acid (formula With4H6O4) - different organic acid;
colourless crystals temperature melting 182,8°, soluble in water, alcohol and ether. Amber acid is widely distributed in nature (plants, animals, bacteria and other microorganisms), is an important intermediate product of oxidation of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, taking part in the interconversion of these substances in the cell. Amber acid and its salts (succinate) are used in analytical chemistry and technology.

Amber acid is a dicarboxylic acid; NOAS - CH2 - CH2 - COOH.
Colorless crystals, soluble 5.8 g/100 g of water, temperature melting 182,8 degrees. Salt succinic acid called succinate. Succinic acid by heating loses water and forms a cyclic anhydride; when heated with ammonia gives succinimide.
Amber acid is widely distributed in nature (animals, plants, bacteria). As a component of the citrate cycle (see Oxidation of biological) amber acid is a universal intermediate product of the oxidation of carbohydrates, proteins and fats and participates in the interconversion of these substances in the cell.
The oxidation system of succinic acid ("succinctly complex") is built into lipoproteidnyi frame of mitochondria. The first enzyme of this system - succinate dehydrogenase - found only in mitochondrial membranes and "crests". Among the features succinamide system it should be noted its relative resistance to poisoning barbiturates.
Specific inhibitors of oxidation of amber acid are savelovkaya acid formed from succinic acid through fumaric and malic acids, and malonic acid.