The nurseries, nursery-garden

The nursery is a state institution engaged in education of children aged 2 months. up to 3 years. In a manger measures are taken to health, the right to physical and mental development of the child.
Most of the manger built on the approved standard projects; they should have a green and a specially equipped area. In typical projects of the manger there are separate rooms for children groups, the detention centre, the administrative-household premises and premises of the nutrition unit.
Necessary premises in a manger: observation room (filter), reception, and for each group of children room (at the rate of 2.5 m2 per child), a bedroom (estimated at 1.5 m2 per child), veranda, bathrooms. Each group should have its own exterior entrance.
Nurseries are divided into regional and departmental. Children in the nursery school are, as a rule, only in the daytime during 9-14 hour, overnight parents take them home. For mothers working in different shifts, not nursing their infants, organized groups-the-clock service of children in the manger in which children are in throughout the week, parents take them home only on weekends.
Power distinguish the manger of the following categories: 120, 100, 80, 60, 45, 30 and 20 seats. To organize proper care all children are divided into 4 age groups: the first group of the complement of children under the age of 9 months. (group infants); the second - from 9 to 14 months. (slide); the third, from 14 months. up to 2 years (average); the fourth - from 2 to 3 years (older). In the first two groups must be not more than 15-18 children in each of the last no more than 20.
The furniture in each group should be comfortable, light, to meet the growth and development of impellent skills for children. Reception for each group of children is equipped with tables for inspection of children, wardrobes, sofas for undressing, and the other, Each group must have their cabinets for toys. Kids clothing should be lightweight, free, not hinder movements.
In the nursery school children in areas of regional Department of health (or vouchers of the factory Committee). All children go through a medical examination and epidemiological examination. Before the arrival of the child in the manger and after any illness not earlier than 1-2 days before admission to an institution it examines district paediatrician and certifies that the child's health condition may go to a children's institution, in addition, the mother presents a certificate from the district epidemiologist about epidemiological well-being in the house where the child lives.
In a manger is set to the appropriate mode for each child in the group. When the regime takes into account not only the child's age, but his state of health and psychological development.
The doctor and the nurse constantly monitor the development and health of children in the manger; nurse (after inspection of children's doctor) conducts all routine immunizations.
The nurse at the reception daily examining a child (skin, mouth), asks her mother about the state of his health, measures body temperature. A doctor examines a child under the age of 6 months. 1 time a week, from 6 months. up to 1.5 years - twice a month, after 1,5 years - 1 time per month. Weighing kids are produced: up to 6 months. every six days, from 6 months. up to 1,5 years every 10 to 15 days, older children are weighed 1 time per month. Height measurement is performed in children under 1 year 1 once a month, more than one year - once in a quarter. In the manger with the number of children 80 and more organized an insulator; the number of beds in it should be 10% of the total number of beds in the manger.
Management of the manger rests on the employee having special secondary medical education. Monitoring the health of children is carried out by the physician of children polyclinic, which are attached to the manger. All the information about the child are recorded in his history of development. Nurses working in a manger, so-called nursery sisters, should have special training for work in these institutions (see medical Sister). They must be familiar with the issues of infant feeding, care, prevention of children's diseases, with the educational work in children's institutions.
Kinder-garden. In order to implement continuity in upbringing and care of children of preschool age (from 2 months. up to 7 years) since 1959, is the development of a network of single children's institutions - nursery-gardens.
Provides for the following categories of nursery-gardens capacity: 160, 135. 115, 90, 70, 45 seats.
Service for children from 3 to 7 years is the type of kindergarten (see).
Overseen by the joint institution of specialist with higher pedagogical education and graduated from special medical courses. The doctor together with the teacher develops mode for each age group, oversees its implementation, monitors mental and physical development of children.
Health workers, monitoring the health of children in creches and nurseries, kindergartens, pay special attention to nutrition. The children's diet should be adequate in quantity and quality, differentiated depending on age. It is recommended that the following distribution of caloric content of food: Breakfast and dinner - 25%, for lunch - 35-40%, in the afternoon - 10-15%. Obligatory condition of rational nutrition of children is the inclusion in the menu of vegetables, fruits, berries, herbs. In urban nurseries are created parent of the initiative group.
Rural nurseries are created in district centres, collective farms and state farms. In district centres and state farms nurseries are maintained at the expense of the state budget, in collective farms - at the expense of the farm.
Medical monitoring the health of children in the manger rural district centers is carried out by the physician of the district hospital, in the manger of collective and state farms is dedicated nurse or paramedic rural medical station. Nurse inspect the child before entering him in a manger, carries out under the supervision of a physician immunizations, isolates of the sick child and, if necessary, hospitalitynet it, determines the period of quarantine in case of introduction of infection in a manger, carries out the control over observance of sanitary-and-hygienic mode in the manger.
In rural manger creates public Council, called to assist in the manger. The Council includes parents, representatives of farmers, rural community nurse.

The nursery is a state institution of public education of children aged 2 months. up to three years. In nurseries, together with the child-raising activities for the protection of his health, physical development.
Already in the first years of Soviet power began to develop a network of children's institution. In 1913 there were only bet in a manger, in 1928, their number had increased to 62 thousand
In 1936, the Soviet government passed a resolution providing for the allocation of special allocations for construction of nurseries. After this, the network of nurseries began to grow quickly. In 1940 859,5 thousand children were brought up in a manger, in 1959 - 1208,4 thousand
In 1954-1955 were developed standard projects of the manger on 45-60-80-100 and 120 seats, which provided space for children groups, administrative premises, facilities, food block, insulators. Children's groups are isolated from each other, have independent entrances. For groups on the second floor Pets one input device for the two groups.
For each group is provided by the filter, reception, children's room, a veranda, free, for - groups - additional bedroom.
In the institution for 80 seats and more there is an insulator, designed for 8 to 12 beds for treatment and isolation of children with non-communicable diseases.
In a manger with day care for each child should be 2.5 m2 usable floor space (excluding ancillary facilities), round 4 m2.
Land divert rate of 35-40 m2 on one place; each group has its own space on the plot, areas isolated by greenery. This site is satisfied with canopies in 30-50 m2 to protect children from the sun and rain.

A nursery may be the day (children are 9-12 hours), - working in throughout the week, except on Sundays, and health (cater for children with tubercular intoxication and some initial forms of TB).
The number of children in infant and slide groups - 15, middle and senior - 20; supplied by age group; the number of groups depends on the capacity of the institution.
For each group to develop a regime appropriate to the age of children.
Basic initial data into account when compiling mode, are given in table. 1.
Doctor of nursery takes part in the preparation of the groups, the admission of new children, organization of mode and power, monitors physical and psychical development, manages health measures and conduct of specific prophylaxis.
Nurseries are the responsibility of the health authorities or different companies, agencies. Methodological guidance is carried out by the Ministry of health of the USSR. In 1959, for the implementation of a unified system of education of children and preschool children, will meet the needs further training in schools, is allowed to combine with local conditions and opportunities nursery and kindergarten in a single institution - nursery-garden.
Since 1960, the new construction of children's preschool establishments is conducted, as a rule, according to standard designs joint institutions - nursery-gardens.
United children's institutions have been widely developed. In nurseries, kindergartens, children from 2 months. up to 7 years; they provide proper physical development of children, mental, moral, labour and aesthetic education with the age and individual peculiarities. In 1960, in kindergartens and nurseries, kindergartens was raised 3115 thousand children, by the beginning of 1966, is already more than 6 million children.
Management of the nursery-garden, with the exception of departmental, concentrated in the ministries of education of the Union republics; the organization of treatment and preventive maintenance of health ministries.
Educational work is carried out in accordance with the guidelines of the ministries of health and ministries of education of the Union republics.
A power-nursery-kindergarten for 280, 140, 90 and 50 seats.
In special buildings provide space for toddlers and preschool age, administrative, service premises. Principle is preserved group isolation. In kindergarten for 140 places and more provides room with total area of 75 m2 for music and gymnastics. In institutions with a capacity of more than 50 children provides medical room for carrying out of medical examinations, preventive vaccinations.
In the section with day stay for toddlers must be reception room of 15 m2, a game-dining room of 50 m2, veranda - 30 m2 and a bathroom of 10 m2; in section for - groups - instead of the veranda, bedroom with area of 30 m2; for preschoolers razdevalka - 15 m2, group - 62 m2, a bathroom of 14 m2, ski storage beds - 5 m2; for groups - stay adds bedroom area of 50 m2; in the reception room and dressing room wardrobes children equipped dryers or arranged cabinets-dryer with exhaust ventilation.
For the Laundry-utility room it is recommended that a separate entrance; other administrative premises may have input, shared with one of the groups; the nutrition unit, consisting of kitchen with storage, washing and pantry, located on the first floor, as a rule, has an independent entrance.
The buildings of nursery-gardens must have a water supply, Sewerage, Central heating; air temperature in main areas of groups of 20 degrees, medical and free nursery groups 22 C; the air in one-storey buildings is provided through the vents and transoms, in a two-story buildings like the extra exhaust ventilation.
The main rooms nursery-gardens have natural lighting. Light factor in the gaming-table, group, bedrooms, detention centre, the room of the sick child is 1:4, 1:5; in others - not lower than 1 : 8.
The plot has the zones of green plantings (about 50% of the area), group of grounds, economic and General.
Group site correspond to the number of groups in the institution; they are isolated from each other by greenery and located near the exits from the rooms, especially for the younger groups. At sites organized canopies (area of 30 m2 for toddlers, children and 50 mg for preschoolers).
A sports Playground satisfied with the rate of 3 m2 on child older than 3 years; a place for animals and birds - 20 m2, a kitchen garden-berries - at the rate of 0.5 m2 on child; farmyard with utility rooms is located in the depth and has an independent entrance.
The placement of the main premises of the manger with round-the-clock maintenance of children is shown in Fig. 1 and 2.
Institutions will be equipped with furniture, taking into account age peculiarities of children in each group (table. 2). In the premises nursery groups set of furniture two sizes, for preschool children - three sizes. The duration of stay of children is the same as in the nursery; for children with tubercular intoxication and some local forms of tuberculosis are organized sanatorium daycare kindergartens.
United institution in charge of the teacher with higher education, small nursery-gardens can manage persons with special secondary education. In groups of children under 2 years are nurses, in others - teachers.
For each group, set the appropriate mode and the order of the day; meals in keeping with the age and in accordance with the standards for children up to 3 years from 3 to 7 years; children from 1 year to 3 years of age receive a day 1300-1500 feces, children from 3 to 7 years - 1800-2000 calories.
The group completed by age, in small nursery-gardens Pets acquisition of groups of children of mixed ages.
The duties of the physician are the same as in the manger. Special attention is paid to the correct mode, and observance of continuity in the implementation of all processes in the transition from one age group to another.
Rural manger can be permanent or temporary (seasonal for the period of field work); in the district centers permanent manger; in state farms, collective farms permanent or seasonal.
Cm. also Children's playgrounds, a kindergarten, the Protection of motherhood and childhood.

Fig. 1. Floor plans two-storey building of the kindergarten: 1 - room; 2 - games-dining room, 3 - bedroom-verandah; 4 - group; 5 - razdevalka; 6 - room music and gymnastics; 7 - medical premises; 8 - kitchen; 9 - Laundry room (top - second floor, below, first).
Fig. 2. General plan of the kindergarten for 140 places (round type): 1 - the building of a children's day nursery-garden; 2 - the shadow canopy for preschoolers; 3 - shadow canopies for predskolniho; 4 - the economic court; 5 - paddling pool; 6 - Playground for predskolni group; 7 - Playground for pre-school groups; 8 - enclosures for the animals; 9 - sports Playground.