Ulcers disease stomach

Peptic ulcer disease is a common General, cyclically flowing, chronic, relapsing disease of the digestive system. It is the result of disorders of the nervous and hormonal mechanisms regulating the secretory and motor functions of gastroduodenal system, which in turn violates physiologically existing correlation between the activity of acid-peptic factor and protective capabilities of the mucous membranes with the formation of stable defect (ulcers) in the stomach or duodenum. In addition to increasing the activity of acid-peptic factor, a certain role in the formation of play and other local digestive disorders in the gastroduodenal zone: disorders sliseobrazutee and circulation, the secretion of digestive hormones, morphological violations of the mucous membrane and changes in the activity of reparative processes and regeneration of epithelial cells.
The specific weight of the factor may differ in two main forms ulcers - with localization sores in the body of the stomach area and piloroduodenalnoy.
In this century of domestic researchers have moved away from purely morphological notions of ulcer disease as local infections of the stomach or duodenum and believe that the disease is suffering integral organism with violation of the first launch, regulatory mechanisms, the consequence of which is the formation of peptic ulcers. In addition, in recent decades, the progress of modern methods of research has allowed a better understanding of the importance of local digestive disorders in the development of peptic ulcers.
In the development of modern ideas about the disease was attended by a large number of Soviet psychologists, clinicians, radiologists: M. P. Konchalovsky, N. D. Strazhesko, M. M. Gubergrits, N. I. Leporsky, R. A. Luria, M. C. Chernorutskii, M. I. Pevzner, V. M. Kogan-Clear, V. N. Parades, I. M. Flegel, Acting Neimark, C. X. Vasilenko, S. A. Reinberg, B. M. stern, G. A. Kosterin, G. I. Burczynski, C., Masevich, F. I. Komarov, K. M. Bykov, I. T. Curtin and mn. other
In recent decades there has been a steady increase in the frequency of ulcer disease in most countries of Europe and in the USA. In the beginning of the century among hospitalized patients were young women with acute ulcers stomach, but at present such cases are rare. Jones and others (1968) reported that the frequency of chronic ulcers of stomach in the 20 years between the two world wars almost unchanged, while ulcers piloroduodenalnoy zone began to meet in 2 times more often. Based on the results of the survey 6047 residents in the UK Doll and others (1951) establish peptic ulcer disease 10% of surveyed men aged 45 to 54 years. In women, the figure was only 6% and was dominated by persons over 55 years of age. Similar data were obtained in many countries of the world (Bockus, 1963), and in most statistical reports prevail duodenal ulcer. In the United States annually 19 people out of every thousand of the population falls ill peptic ulcer disease, and the total number of such patients in 1965 amounted to 3.5 million, and in 1967 exceeded 4-5 million (Almy, 1967; Grossman, 1967).
According to S. Century Kurashov (1963), the USSR indicators of ulcer disease amounted to 1000 urban population of 8.2 among men and 20 for women. The urban population more often than rural people suffer from peptic ulcer disease.
Among African Nations, the latter often occurs in Bantu tribe, and the inhabitants of Nigeria, many descriptions of the disease comes from the South of India, some Alpine regions of Latin America.
One of the features of peptic ulcer disease is that it mostly prevalence among adult men. The majority of the world statistics, the ratio of the number of duodenal ulcers in men and women is determined as equal to 1:3-4. Stomach ulcers, gender differences are less pronounced.
Everywhere duodenal ulcer is more common than a stomach ulcer, and in India it takes place in the ratio of 30:1.
It is essential that men can develop at any age, but women more often suffer from peptic ulcer disease after menopause. C. Century Kurashov (1963) noted a sharp increase in morbidity in the intermediate age groups (25 to 50 years) with its gradual reduction in older age. Interestingly, in the early childhood of both sexes suffer equally often, but with the onset of puberty revealed a clear prevalence of morbidity among men. The question of a possible link to the occurrence of peptic ulcer with the profession at present is solved in the negative, because there is no reliable statistical evidence of such dependence.
Peptic ulcer disease is a chronic relapsing condition, involving periodic temporary loss of working capacity, which has a certain social value. Among patients with peptic ulcer within one year only 22.1% of men and 17.1% of women remain fully operational.
Mortality from peptic ulcer disease (table. 1) not so small, as it follows from the presented data. It is different in individual countries, is higher for men and lower for women depends on the localization of ulcers.

TABLE 1. Comparative data on mortality of men and women in different countries from peptic ulcers (per 100,000 population) (Segi, Fujisaki and Kurihara, 1958)
Country The death rate per 100 000 on the floor
stomach ulcers duodenal ulcer
men women men women
England
Scotland
Italy
Sweden
Switzerland
France
Norway
Canada
USA:
white population
the Negro population
Chile
Japan
Australia
New Zealand
6,7
5,9
5,9
5,3
5,6
3,5
2,7
3,8

4,1
5,5
7,1
32,1
6,0
5,1
2,3
2,3
1,1
1,9
1,9
0,6
1,3
1,0

1,0
1,5
2,6
11,0
1,9
1,7
7,4
9,7
4,0
4,7
2,3
0,5
1,8
3,8

4,1
2,7
0,6
2,6
4,5
5,0
1,2
1,5
0,5
0,9
0,6
0,1
0,5
0,8

0,8
0,7
0,2
0,6
0,8
1,2

Thus, the current century is characterized by the prevalence of peptic ulcer disease in many countries, which so far has no tendency to decrease.

   The etiology and pathogenesis
   Pathologic anatomy
   Clinical symptoms of uncomplicated form of peptic ulcer disease
   Diagnosis and differential diagnosis
   The course and prognosis
   Treatment
   Prevention and treatment of anti