Lost sheep in the hands of the infidels

And, still a feudal society discovered the existence of ancient science and medicine, too. It was back to Hippocrates, Galen and Aristotle. The Christian world had their possession from the world of Arab culture.
When Rome fell, the centers of civilization was the country's East. The rule of the Arab Caliphate of Baghdad spread at that time in Central Asia, Persia, Egypt, North Africa, Spain. Religion Arab conquerors who conquered this vast territory, was Islam, which means "submission". Arab know that stood at the head of the state, in the course of conquest faced by peoples, which had a large cultural traditions, have preserved scientific value ancient Europe and the Ancient East. Baghdad rulers Khalifa IX-XI centuries were more tolerant in relation to secular knowledge, than their contemporaries in Christian Europe. Moreover, they are skillfully combined political despotism with the defence science and freedom of religion on the territory of the conquered countries. Christians, for example, have retained their churches and monasteries.
One of the Arabic sayings that time read: "the wisdom of the world - the lost sheep, the lost believers, return it to the world, at least from the hands of the infidels."
And Christians have the wisdom of the world was considered foolish to God.
It so happened that the Arabic language is the language of the conquerors and was the basis upon which met scientific and cultural traditions of Greece and Rome with the achievements of a civilization of Egypt and Persia, Central Asia and India. This meeting gave rise to a brilliant Arab culture of the middle ages, preserving and reconsidered the philosophy of Aristotle and Plato, achievements of Greek and Roman medicine.
The caliphs of Baghdad, which singers called the "center of the world", became famous for his patronage education. The city had something like a University, a haven for scholars and the seeking of knowledge of youth, opened many schools, pupils who studied not only the Koran, Islam's Holy book, but other science, listened to stories about traveling to other countries and got acquainted with the works of philosophers and scholars of antiquity.
There were libraries and bookshops, the Observatory, and in the court of the Caliph was working staff of the public translators "House of wisdom". Among the ancient scientific literature were prominent translations of the writings of Hippocrates and Galen.
Arabic medicine IX-XI centuries had its peculiarities. Islam, like other religions, too, was banned dissection of corpses, so in the field of anatomy and physiology of the Arab doctors generally do not have gone further Galen, although their surgery under the influence of ancient Indian one time have achieved major successes. But not even she defined the main direction of Arab medicine. Especially interesting was developing here pharmacology is the study of the medicines, building on the success of the Arab chemists and to using the wealth stock subtropical medicinal plants.
Arab doctors linked more perfect organization of care, the establishment of hospitals, as well as new heights in the understanding and treatment of eye diseases.
In those days people involved in medicine, was not a narrow specialist in your field. He knew all that was related to the treatment of patient. Simultaneously, he studied philosophy and theology, was a connoisseur of alchemy and astrologer, knew geography and was fond of poetry and itself wrote verses. The world of knowledge had not yet contemporary borders, within it faced, was connected, crossed scientific and superstitious, realism and mysticism, the true and the false, the exact facts and poetic images. In those days the medic was not just a medic, and a wise man, who spoke with the philosophical, historical or theological treatises. Most often it was here that he had voiced their medical knowledge, views on the disease, generalized experience of treatment.
Such a comprehensive, wise men were the most well-known doctors of the Arab world Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Zakariya ar-Razi, or Rates (864-925), and Abu Ali Husain Ibn Abdallah Ibn Sina, or Avicenna (980-1037).