Obliterating diseases of the arteries

Obliterating diseases of the arteries (atherosclerosis and obliterating endarteritis) develop as a result of changes in the structure of the walls of arteries. These changes contribute to the narrowing of the lumen of the vessel, and formed it clots make it completely impassable for blood. With obliterating atherosclerosis of the changes (see "Atherosclerosis") of the aorta, the iliac arteries and arteries of lower extremities. Obliterative endarteritis growing inner sheath medium and small arteries, covering their lumen. Change of structure of blood vessels often accompanied them spasm. All this affects the blood supply to the lower limbs and calls of complaint first to the chilliness, numbness of the fingers and feet, fatigue of legs, leg cramps (I stage), then join intermittent claudication( pain appear when you walk away and pass during holidays) and primary trophic changes (II stage), with a more significant circulatory problems arise pain and alone, trophic changes become severe (stage III), developed gangrene of fingers and feet (stage IV).
The disease development is promoted by Smoking, cooling legs, neuro-trauma. In the treatment applied vasodilator and reduce the coagulation of blood money. When the evidence produced plastic operations on the vessels, restore the patency of the arteries, and sympathectomy (removal of sympathetic nodes), which decreases the tone arteries and increases blood flow in the collaterals.
The tasks of medical physical culture are: the General strengthening of an organism, improvement of peripheral blood circulation and metabolic processes in the affected limb, the development of collaterals and the restoration of full regulation of circulation. It is especially important to achieve a good development collaterals, as they are able to replace the affected vessels. Thus achieved a high degree of compensation.
When I and II stages of the disease in the introductory part of the therapeutic gymnastics apply exercises for the upper extremities and torso, breathing exercises, walking. In the main part has a lot of special exercises, alternating with obshherazvivajushhego exercises for healthy limbs and trunk and respiratory exercises. Special exercises are dynamic exercises for the affected limb, exercises in a static tension and relaxation of muscles, exercises with the change of position of the affected limb. In the final part apply exercises for muscle relaxation, breathing exercises, sedentary games.
Important techniques, allowing to increase the load on the affected limb, are: the alternation of different exercises, the use of exercises initially for large muscle groups affected limb, then for small, frequent change the original standing, sitting and lying. The number of repetitions in the exercises for the legs shall be such as not to cause pain.

Therapeutic physical culture shows obliterative endarteritis, obliterating atherosclerosis of the arteries of the extremities and after reconstructive surgery of the peripheral vessels. It improves the functional state of the cardiovascular system, peripheral circulation and compensatory development of muscle collaterals, regulates angiospastic reactions, increases efficiency of the muscles.
Apply special gymnastic exercises for legs - dynamic, with relaxation and dosed force of muscles lying or sitting in alternation with different types of walking, breathing and restorative exercises for healthy body and limbs. It is recommended that frequent change of initial position (lying, sitting and standing) to improve blood circulation in the legs. Avoid prolonged static stresses of muscles of the legs. Useful dosed walking and skiing, rowing and swimming in warm water. Dosage of exercise depends on the degree of vascular-trophic disorders of the limbs and the defeat of vessels of other bodies (coronary, cerebral). Physical therapy is contraindicated in acute thrombosis, migrating thrombophlebitis, gangrene.


A sample set of exercises obliterative arterial diseases
1. Starting position - sitting on a chair. Hands up - breath, I. p. - exhale. 4-6 times.
2. I. p. - same hands to her shoulders, elbows in hand. The rotation of the shoulder joints in different directions. Breathing arbitrary. 16-20 times.
3. I. p. - sitting on the chair facing the back, hands on the back of the chair. The right leg to the side, right hand reach out for her toe - exhale, I. p. - breath. The same with the left foot. 6-8 times.
4. I. p. is the same. Straighten the arms, the back tilt - breath, I. p. - exhale. 6-8 times.
5. I. p. - main hour. Rise on the toes, hands behind the head, hands up - breath, hands behind the head, I. p. - exhale. 5-8 times.
6" I. p. is the same. Relaxed shaking leg muscles. 3-5 times for each leg.
7. I. p. - standing, hands on his belt. The rotation of the torso. 6-8 times in each direction.
8. I. p. - standing, feet shoulder-width apart, hands on his belt. Bending her left leg, to transfer the weight of the body. The same right leg. 8-12 times.
9. I. p. - standing right side to the back of the chair, holding his right hand over it. Mahi left foot forward-back, relaxing muscles of the legs. The same right foot, standing left side to the chair. 8-10 times.
10. I. p. - main hour, the left arm is bent at the elbow, fingers clenched in a fist. Changes the position of the hands. 16-20 times.
11. The usual walk, walk with high lifting knees. 1-2 min
12. I. p. - main hour. Hand in hand - breath, I. p. - exhale. 5-6 times. ;
13. I. p. - lying on his back. Tighten by hand bent at the knee of the leg to the stomach - exhale, I. p. - breath. 8-10 times for each leg.
14. I. p. - laying on a back, legs, knees slightly bent, raised at an angle of 60 to 90 degrees support their hands behind the back surface of the hips. Bending and straightening stop (at the rate of 1 every 1 C). The number of repetitions until fatigue (but not to a pain!). To sit with his legs, imagine and feel, as they gradually Teleut and fill with blood. 2-3 minutes
15. I. p. - sitting on a chair. Relaxed shaking leg muscles. 4-6 times.
16. I. p. - sitting, hands on his belt. Take your elbows back, bend your - breath, I. p. - exhale. 4-6 times.
17. I. p. - lying on her back at the edge of the bed. To lower leg on the floor - breath, lift the leg - exhale. 10-12 times for each leg.
18. I. p. - lying on his back. Abdominal-thoracic breathing. 4-5 times. 19.. I. p. is the same. Alternate abstraction feet to the side. 10-12 times for each leg.
20. I. p. - standing, holding the back of a chair. Sit - exhale, I. p. - breath, 6-10 times.
21. Repeat the exercise 9.
22. I. p. - standing, holding the back of a chair. Bend back - breath, stooping, bending hands - exhale. 6-8 times.
23. I. p. - sitting on a chair. Rotation stop. 10 times in each direction.
24. I. p. is the same. Taking his heels on the floor, stretch the muscles of the lower leg (2-4); lowering your heels on the floor, to relax (4-6). 5-10 times.
25. I. p. is the same. Relaxation and shaking leg muscles. 4-6 times.
26. I. p. is the same. Hand in hand - breath, I. p. - exhale. 4-6 times.

Among other forms of exercise a medical physical culture plays an important role dosed walking. Distance, speed, distance, time of rest are selected individually so as not to cause pain in the legs. At the first signs of fatigue speed and distance dosed walking decrease, and if pain is given a rest. Load increases due to longer distances, and then speed.
In stage III disease at the beginning of the course of treatment using exercises for healthy limbs, trunk and respiratory exercises and the improvement in the start gently apply special exercises.