Diseases of the respiratory system

  • Acute respiratory viral diseases
  • Acute bronchitis
  • Acute pneumonia
  • Bronchial asthma
  • Spontaneous pneumothorax
  • Tuberculosis
  • Dry pleurisy
  • Lung cancer
  • Full statistical data on incidence athletes diseases of respiratory organs in the literature as well as in the reporting materials exercise therapy and sports medicine clinics and medical institutions public network where athletes are not considered as a special contingent. The unit works in both domestic and foreign literature on the subject, based on a small material. In they for the most part are considered separate narrow aspects of respiratory disorders in athletes, which does not allow to make any generalizations. At the same time, the changes occurring under the influence of special training in the organism in General and in the respiratory system in particular, can define known differences in the occurrence and during the diseases of respiratory organs among athletes when compared with not involved in sports and athletes with different directions of the training process. All this may make known and specificity in the treatment of respiratory diseases in athletes.
    Literature data on the impact of sport on the respiratory system at times contradictory.
    So, for example, R. Piade et al. (1965), surveying 50 professional cyclists after the end of the race, was found in 25 % of them expressed increasing airiness of the lungs. In experimental animals under the influence of frequent and excessive loads, in addition to the increasing weight of light, designed for 1 kg of body weight, histological study found breaks and loss of alveolar walls, reducing the number of capillaries, i.e. truly emphysematous changes [Minarovjech V. et al., 1965].
    At the same time there are observations that indicate a significant positive structural changes in lung parenchyma occurring under the influence of physical loads of great intensity. In experiments on animals, it was found that depending on the magnitude of the physical load mass of light, referred to the body weight of the animal increases [Navrata A. O., 1969; Minarovjech V., 1965]. This is mainly due to the expansion of major and small branches of the pulmonary artery. These experimental works are consistent with the results of x-ray [Elmanovich L. P., 1967] and scintigraphic [Todaro A. et al., 1979] studies that indicate an increase in athletes vascular and capillary network of light, help optimize conditions of pulmonary gas exchange and, ultimately, Arte-realizatsii mixed venous blood. Also stipulated that a systematic exercise contribute to the growth of the functionality of a system of external respiration. Increase vital capacity of lungs, bronchial permeability, strength and endurance of the respiratory muscles, diffusion lungs, reduces respiratory minute volume, with the same level of gas exchange, i.e. increasing the efficiency of ventilation. All this determines how the economization function at rest and under moderate loads and significant increase of the maximum capacity of the functioning of the system of external breathing.
    Thus, it becomes obvious that the interest in the study of features of the clinical picture of respiratory diseases in athletes has a good reason.