The anus (the anal canal) - perineal part of the rectum with a length of 3-4 cm, opening to the outside anal (anal) hole (anus). Throughout the anus is surrounded by a circle muscle (outer sphincter)that provides its closure. Survey: external examination in position on the side of the belly and his thighs or in the knee-elbow position, the study finger in glove with rectal mirrors.

hypertrophy of anal papillae
Hypertrophy of anal papillae

On the mucous membrane of the anus often seen elevation - anal papillae (the remains embryonic. Growing, they could fall out of the anus (Fig) and be infringed. In these cases it is the operation.
Fissures are formed by repeated trauma of the mucous membrane during defecation, childbirth and are slit-like a bleeding ulcer, located perpendicular to the direction of the fibers of the sphincter, usually on the back wall of the anus. Crack sharp pain when urinating and even after it, independently rarely heal with the accession of spasm of the sphincter take resistant chronic. Treatment: to eliminate constipation give light laxatives (rhubarb, phenolphthalein); to reduce pain - candles, containing extract of belladonna, the Ichthyol and benzocaine; warm sitting baths (temperature 37-40 degrees). If no effect is produced (doctor!) the introduction into the crack of a mixture of the following recipe: Sovcaini - 0,1; Phenoli - 0,2; Spiritus Vini rectificati - 2,0; Ol. Persicorum - 7,7; anesthesia lasts 20 to 30 days, crack for this time heals. When unhealed cracks produce (doctor!) violent stretching sphincter under local anesthesia or General anesthesia. After this pain and spasm of the sphincter usually fade and crack heal. The ineffectiveness of treatment is surgery. Preparation and care after it the same as if an operation for hemorrhoids (see).
Fistulas anus - see Paraproctitis.