Stuttering neurosis, the main symptom of which is a violation of the normal pace and rhythm of speech. Usually stuttering occurs in predostawlena (1-3 years) and younger school age (7-8 years), in a period of rapid growth, more often in boys than in girls. Stuttering is caused by disorders of the higher nervous processes, the regulatory functions of the speech mechanisms. Stuttering easier occurs in children with a weak nervous system, giving a "failure" in the result of exposure to traumatic factor: fear, endocrine disorders, trauma, infection. A great role is also played by defects in education (rough attitude to the child, the conflict situation, and so on). Stuttering may occur under the influence of example convulsive speech (reflex imitation). Clinically stuttering is manifested in the tonic clonic and forms. When clonic the form of the child repeats several times any syllable: instead of the word "mother," he says, "mA-mA-Mama". When tonic form he frantically says the first letter of the word: instead of the word "daddy" - "p-p-p-daddy." The excitement increases stuttering. Sometimes it child is delayed by one letter or syllable for a few seconds.
Under favorable conditions stuttering may disappear, in other cases it steadily fixed. Age stuttering child is shy, coyly, excitable, clumsy, sullen. To convulsive speech he joined by co-movement: the muscles of the face, trunk, involuntary movements of the limbs, endangered alone. In school stuttering is generally improved, especially in adolescents. Teen suffers a violation of his speech, begins to be ashamed of stuttering, during a speech at it, there vegetative violations; he is blushing, sweating. In his youth neurosis reaches its highest development. After 24 - 25 years stuttering in most cases decreases, and in a Mature or old age stuttering rare.
Stuttering treatment should be started before. Sick children are taught the proper speech under the guidance of doctors psihoneurologic and speech therapists - in special institutions or in the conditions of clinic. The challenge is to craft slow and smooth speech. Lessons with a speech therapist with stammering children are divided into three stages. First, there are daily speech exercises in the pronunciation with the teacher individual small proposals in slow motion. At the second stage the children, using the skills of fluent speech, answer questions verbally describe the content of the images. The third - use acquired skills in conversation with others. The more successfully the training is held with simultaneous strengthening of nervous system relevant drugs (calcium, bromine), hydrotherapy baths, therapeutic physical training. Psychotherapy helps develop a child's calm and confident behavior, to overcome the fear of speech. Prevention of stuttering is to correct statement of the education and training of the younger generation.