Conclusion

The problem of fighting alcoholism today in the center of attention. This is because, on the one hand, today's challenges facing our society can be solved provided overcome alcoholism and alcohol abuse, and on the other, the fact that in a society are the necessary preconditions for serious progress on the path of struggle with alcoholism.
To find solutions to the problems involved considerable scientific potential. Intensive research to move forward and at the same time highlight all the new faces, show the immense complexity of the problem of alcoholism. It is safe to say that the measures aimed at the approval of a sober way of life, the creation of a climate of intolerance towards drunkenness, brought significant results. During 1985 and 1986, alcohol consumption in the USSR fell by half, and in the first quarter of 1987, according to the CSO of the USSR sale of alcohol products in comparison with the same period of the last year has decreased (in comparable prices) by 30% (table. 9).

Table 9. The sale of alcohol in the first quarter of 1987
Kind of alcoholic products Sales volume, million dal In % to the corresponding period 1986
I quarter including March I quarter including March
Vodka and liqueur-vodka products
Wine
Champagne
Cognac
Beer
30,0
36,7
4,5
2,0
103,3
10,4
13,5
1,7
0,7
37,4
66
60
110
93
83
69
69
117
92
89

This results in the improvement of a range of socio-economic and health indicators, reducing crime, improvement of the moral atmosphere in the society. According to the Ministry of health of the USSR, in 1986 there was no increase in the incidence of alcoholism (and for many years this trend existed), sharply decreased the number of alcoholic psychosis (24%), decreased the number of alcohol poisoning (32%).
However, the scale of the problem remains severe. In 1987 on the account consisted of more than 4.5 million alcoholics, of which 532 thousand persons were taken on account in 1986, the Total number of patients with alcoholism in our country is, according to scientists, about 7 million people. In addition, for each patient had 3-4 abuse alcohol, life expectancy, according to the who, is 46 years.
And yet, according to scientists, during the first year of struggle against drunkenness and alcoholism managed to save about 100 thousand of lives and reduce overall mortality from 10.6 to 9.8 per 1 thousand of population. There are exemptions and derogations from this struggle in some regions with the connivance of local authorities. In particular, spread moonshine, but it is a consequence of excessively rapid decrease in sales of alcohol.
Modern studies of alcoholism while pose more questions than give answers. Despite clear progress in fundamental research, the study of the biological basis of alcoholism, many of the most important stages of pathogenesis is not yet established. Yet it seems that one of the priorities for the next period will be profound development of the main provisions of catecholamine concepts of pathogenesis of alcoholism.
Significant variation of the experimental data and the real variety of clinical variants of alcoholism always made it difficult for researchers attempt to build a clear hypotheses and concepts. This obstacle is largely removed within the developed over a number of years of thinking about the role of constitutional premorbid typological peculiarities in the formation and clinical dynamics of alcoholism. Crucial in this regard is the provision that the constitutional typological features of the patient is one of the pathogenetic factors of the disease.
Considering that modern diagnostic methods do not quite meet researchers, it is possible that these provisions can be further serve as a basis for creating a more reliable and sensitive method for the diagnosis of chronic alcohol intoxication and alcohol abuse.
On the basis of modern pathogenetic and clinical views are quite real and the search for more effective means and methods of treatment of alcoholism. It is difficult to expect that in the near future will be able to find a drug that would be able to break the vicious circles of pathogenesis of alcoholism and thus ensure complete recovery. Today, the strategic goal of the development and application of various drugs in the treatment of alcoholism is to achieve sobriety is essentially practical recovery, based on the absolute cessation of alcohol consumption patients. In this connection the most promising development of new methods and means of acting on already established links of pathogenesis of alcoholism. Illustration of the efficiency of such a realistic approach could be used in a clinic such highly effective drugs, as stimulants presynaptic dopamine receptors, and neuropeptides. There is no doubt that the deepening of pathogenetic views will create new opportunities for increase of efficiency of treatment of alcoholism.
Reserves of increase of efficiency of treatment of alcoholism is seen in the strengthening of integrated approaches to treatment. The use of different therapies, medication and non-medication, specific and non-specific, allows you to work simultaneously on different stages of pathogenesis and leads to improved outcomes.
Currently the least studied area is the prevention of alcoholism. We have to admit that until the last years of deep systematic research on the prevention of alcoholism was absent, and few studies have been fragmented and inconsistent. So today discusses the main General approaches to the prevention of alcoholism. However, obviously, this direction of scientific research is the most promising priority and requires maximum attention.
The difficulty here lies in the fact that the main array of activities on primary prevention of alcoholism should be performed by physicians in close cooperation with representatives of other disciplines, which is connected with overcoming various interdepartmental barriers, finding a common language and the real unification of efforts.
Ultimately, when the society is confronted with any major problem, and the overcoming of alcoholism and alcohol abuse is one of such problems, the success is largely determined by how much will be to coordinate efforts and focus them on the main routes. Objective prerequisites and conditions for this purpose we exist. So, for the cause.