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Acute development of poisoning, often severe, by the bite of a poisonous animals is the result of hard interacting with each other biologically active substances contained in their poisons. In the process of evolution poisons animals acquired the ability to penetrate into the cells through the membranes and cell membranes due gialuronidasy activity and impress everyone, and especially the most important integrating the systems of the body. Characteristically, the minimal dose poisons cause maximum toxic effect.
In the pathogenesis of poisoning along with the main toxic and toxico-allergic factors are important enzyme, non-political and other substances contained in the poison, and products of cellular metabolism affected organs, in the amount of the potential toxic effects of the poison.
Poisoned elapid snakes characterized by a complex manifestations of respiratory disorders and endocrine, cardiovascular and other systems of the body associated with reflex action of the poison due to irritation of chemoreceptors different reflexogenic zones and direct its influence on the Central and peripheral nervous system. In the result of excitation of the centers of the cerebral cortex and blockade the Central n-holinoreaguykh structures under the influence of poison off various functional systems of the brain. Neurotoxins, for example, elapid snakes and rattlesnakes, providing post - and presynaptic influence, caused mainly antidepoliarizuth neuromuscular block. Violations in the coagulation of blood are associated with the presence of poisons trombinovogo enzyme that activates the X factor, antitromboticescoe enzyme inhibitory factor V, protrombina, plasminogen activator, etc. it is Characteristic that in the venom of one species of snakes of the same family are activators of blood coagulation, in the venom of the others - only their inhibitors in the venom of third - the one to the other, and so on, Along with gemokoagulyatsii and defibrilasyon effects for poisoning venom Viper snakes characterized by the development of complex hemorrhagic syndrome and insignificant compared with a poisoning with poison of Cobra hemolytic effect.
Poisoning with poison of spiders, Scorpions and tarantula characterized mainly neurotropic effects, and poisoned bees and wasps, in addition, is shown an allergic reaction (shock)associated with high individual sensitivity of the organism to the poison.
Pathological anatomy of a poisoning with poison animals characterized by the development of often complex and irreversible morphological and histochemical changes in organs and systems, especially those killed as a result of delays and irrational therapy.
In many countries that do not use a complex method of rational treatment of poisoning, bites of venomous animals are still a disaster, annually claim hundreds of thousands of lives. There are 10 million annually bites of poisonous animals, including more than 1 million cases of bites of poisonous snakes. Lethality through the bite of snakes from the family Elapidae and Crotalidae in some countries, up to 30% (Oosburg, 1973). According to Oliver (1958), in Australia and New Guinea all bites Oxyuranus scutellatus end with the death of the victims, and in India, mortality in the stings of the snakes was (A. M. Lie, 1931) and remains (James, 1974) at the same level -20 thousand people per year. In Brazil from 23 thousand annually suffering from the bites of poisonous snakes only in the state of Sao Paulo killed about 3 million people (Boguet, 1964). And this in a city where, in 1899, the first in the world was organized by Institute "Butantan", which provides many countries medical protivopravnoy serum. In Mexico from Ugolini Scorpions annually killed 1,200 people. In the U.S. only from snake bites annually suffers 8 thousand people.
Considering the frequency of cases of severe poisoning snake poison, often life-threatening events, accompanied by irreversible changes in organs and systems, should not be satisfied with the improvement of the General condition of the victims after the application of anesthetic and nonspecific remedies. Banners, cuts and burns in the area of the bite is extremely harmful: they often complicate the disease and cause unwanted effects.