Freezing (General cooling) - status developing owing to the General cooling of the body. Freezing is sometimes possible and in case of positive external temperature 10-12 C above zero), high humidity, strong wind. The duration of the cooling enough to freeze the less, than below the outside temperature. Freezing occurs faster in exhaustion, starvation, and especially when drunk. Extremely rapidly cooled in water. Stay in the icy water for 1/2-1 hour deadly, and with a sudden dive in the first minutes of the possible cold shock (see).
In the development of freezing are distinguished: the period of compensation (cooling off period), the period of decompensation (period hypothermia) and the period after cooling (warming). In the first period, the body temperature remains normal or reduced to 35 degrees, there muscle tremor, increased respiration and heartbeat, blanching of the skin. In the second period frost occurs a significant reduction in body temperature, develops drowsiness, muscle tremor disappears, and from the expansion of skin vessels appears deceptive feeling of warmth. Upon further cooling is lost consciousness, slowed heart rate, decreases blood pressure, breathing surface and rare (4-6 per minute). During this period, death can occur. In the period after cooling observed (after warming) sleepiness, weakening of memory, in severe cases, cardiac disorders and respiratory system, violation of urination. The most frequent complications after cooling - swelling the brain and lungs, more rarely pneumonias. Freezing often accompany frostbite (see).
Treatment. First of all it is necessary to quickly warm the victim. He is placed in the tub, the water temperature which 5-10 min raise from the room to 37-40 degrees. Warm the bath and simultaneous grinding bodies continue 20-40 minutes and more depending on the condition of the victim. You need all the time to control the temperature of the water and the patient's body. If you cannot warm water, apply light baths, heating pad, a warm bath, warming in Russian oven, stove with rubbing of the body. Appropriate intravenous enter heated solutions of calcium chloride 10% 20 ml of glucose 40% 40-60 ml Shown taking a small dose of alcohol inside.
After warming - bed, hot food and drinking; on prescription - korglykonum 0.5 ml 0.06% of slow intravenous solution in 20 ml of 40% glucose solution, 1% solution mezatona 1 ml intravenous drip method in 250 ml izotoniceski solution of sodium chloride, subcutaneously to 1 ml kordiamin, 1-2 ml of 2% solution of morphine, intramuscularly 2-4 ml of 1% solution of Dimedrol or 1-2 ml of 2.5% solution of pipolfen. To prevent infectious complications used antibiotics and sulfa drugs.
Prevention of freezing is the appropriate precautions when organizing winter forest works, winter hikes and others Should provide the working outdoors and especially away from inhabited places warm clothes, warm and comfortable shoes, to organize the delivery to the place of hot food.