The structure of the stomach

topography of stomach
Fig. 1. The topography of the stomach: 1 - stomach 2 - pancreas, 3 - transverse colon, 4 - duodenum; 5 - gallbladder; 6 - the common bile duct; 7 - liver; 8 - the esophagus.
the structure of the stomach
Fig. 2. The structure of the stomach (scheme): 1 cardia; 2-bottom (REDD); 3 - body; 4 - the eve of the porter, 5 - doorman, 6 - corner cutting.

The stomach is located in the upper part of the abdominal cavity is a big part of it lies to the left of the midline of the body and only a small part is on the right (Fig. 1). Form, volume, size, position, stomach unstable: they depend on the body, filling gases, food, from the tone of muscles of the stomach, from nervous and hormonal influences, and on the size and position of the adjacent organs. Average capacity stomach - 1-3 HP Stomach consists of the following divisions: 1) cardiac part, adjacent to the confluence of the stomach, esophagus; 2) bottom, also called the code; 3) the body of the stomach; 4) pyloric that consists of a vestibule and pyloric canal ending gatekeeper (Fig. 2). Recent reports the lumen of the stomach and duodenum.
There are small curvature of the stomach, right and up, and large, turned left and down. The wall of the stomach consists of three shells: serous, muscle and mucous. Outside the serous membrane is part of the peritoneum, the leaves of which are transferred to the adjacent organs. Under it there is a thin layer of connective tissue - podberezny the layer in which lie the blood and lymphatic vessels and nerve plexus. In places of transition serosa of the neighbouring organs are the ligamentsthat support the stomach in a certain position.
Muscular layer of the stomach is made up of three layers of smooth muscle. The outer layer is formed long grain, medium - circular and internal oblique; the middle layer thickens the gatekeeper, forming pulp (sphincter) gatekeeper. Between muscular layers is located intermuscular nerve plexus (Auerbach).
The mucous membrane of the stomach loosely associated with muscle submucosal layer and forms folds, variously direction. In the submucosal layer lie plexus blood and lymph vessels and submucosal nerve plexus (Meissner).
The mucous membrane of the stomach covered with a kind of cylindrical epithelium. It opened millions of duct specific tubular glands that contain four types of cells: main, incremental, tuck-and intermediate. The main cells release of pepsinogen becoming acidic environment in pepsin, incremental, and intermediate - mucin, obkladochnykh cells hydrochloric acid. Blood supply to the stomach is the right and the left gastric and the right and left of the gastro-sealing arteries. Vienna follow in the course of the arteries and into the portal vein. Discharge lymphatic vessels are mainly directed to gastric lymph nodes located in the greater and lesser curvature of the stomach.
Innerviruetsya stomach branches celiac plexus and wandering nerves.
It is now generally recognized that secretory the process is regulated by neural and humoral-hormonal mechanisms. The nervous mechanism includes all parts of the nervous system - from the cortex to the peripheral nerve endings.
Hormonal influenced by hormones of the gastrointestinal tract (gastritis, interogated and others) and endocrine gland (hypophysis, adrenal glands). Humoral regulation secretory function of the stomach is vsosavchegosa extractive substances, and products of protein breakdown.
Caught in the stomach food is further digestion, which began in the oral cavity (carbohydrates).
The stomach has not only secretory, but also motor, absorption and excretory functions. In the pyloric stomach of the allocated gastronomiepreis (see castle factors), which plays an important role in the process of hematopoiesis (see).

lymphatic and blood vessels of the stomach
Fig. 1. Lymphatic and blood vessels of the stomach (front): 1, 29 - lymphatic vessels and nodes; 2 and 31 - v. gastro - epiplolca dext. et sin.; 3 and 30 a. gastro - epiplolca dext. et sin.; 4 - omentum transposed majus; 5 and 26 - v. gastrica dext. et sin.; 6 - aorta abdominalis; 7 - v. lienalis; S - lobus dext. hepatis; 9 - ductus choledochus; 10 and 25 - a. lienalis; 11 - a. gastro - duodenalis; 12 - a. gastrica dext.; 13 - v. portae; 14 - vasa cystica; 15 - ductus cysticus; 16 - ductus hepaticus; 17 - a. hepatica propria; 18 - v. cava inf.; 19 - a. hepatica communis; 20 - a. phrenica; 21 - truncus coellacus; 22 - a. gastrica sin.; 23 and 24 - n. vagus dext. et sin.; 27 - pancreas; 28 - lien.