Nutrition of pregnant women

  • Food for lactating women
  • Rational nutrition, along with other factors (the correct mode, labour protection, elimination of stress and the others) is one of the basic conditions favorable course and outcome of pregnancy, proper development of the fetus and the birth of a healthy child.
    In the first half of pregnancy, when the fetus is still small, the power of the mother does not require any changes. In the second half of pregnancy, the women need for nutrients is increased, driven by vigorous growth of the fetus. So, if in the middle of pregnancy length of the fetus is 24-26 cm and weight 280-300 g, by the moment of delivery, its length is increased on the average up to 50 cm and the weight is more than 10 times (up to 3200-3500 g).
    It is established, that since the 17th week of pregnancy, out of every 3 g protein derived by a woman with food, about 1 g is spent on the growth of the fetus. This explains the importance of nutrition during pregnancy.
    Unfortunately, more often of the opinion that the child will receive from the body of the mother of all necessary nutrients regardless of the quality of its food. It is not so. Incorrect different opinion - the idea that a pregnant woman should get a redundant power, "eat for two". Nutrition of pregnant should be not rich, how many full.
    First of all pregnant women should be provided with sufficient amount of protein, which goes for the construction of organs and tissues of the fetus. According to the recommendations of the Institute of nutrition of the Academy of medical Sciences of the USSR (1982), the need of pregnant women (the period 5-9 years) in the protein is 100 g/day, which is 30 % above the needs of the healthy women of childbearing age. It is also envisaged the increase in the share of animal protein, which in the diet of the pregnant should be 60 % from total amount of a protein.
    The need of pregnant women in energy increased up to 2900 kcal, which is 400 kcal higher than in healthy women of childbearing age (2500 kcal per day). Almost 2 times increased need for calcium. It is 1,500 mg per day.
    Great attention in the recommendations of the Institute of nutrition of the Academy of medical Sciences of the USSR devoted to providing pregnant women with sufficient amount of vitamins [Ladoga K. S., Spirichev Century B., 1987; Fateyeva E. M. and others, 1989]. The need for vitamins during pregnancy increases significantly, especially high demand in ascorbic acid, vitamin a and folacin (table. 8).

    Table 8. Recommended values are daily intake of vitamins for women of childbearing age and pregnancy
    Vitamins Women aged 18-29 Pregnant women
    Thiamine, mg
    Riboflavin, mg
    B6, mg
    B12, mkg
    Folacin, mkg
    Niacin (Niacin equivalent), mg
    Ascorbic acid
    And (retinology equivalent), mkg
    E, ME
    D, ME
    1,4
    1,7
    1,7
    3
    200
    16
    60
    1000
    12
    100
    1,7
    2,0
    2,0
    4
    600
    19
    72
    1250
    15
    500
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