Housing and accommodation of older persons 1

General provisions. The problem of housing for the elderly recently acquired special urgency. The number of elderly people in the total population increases. According to the forecasts contained in the report of the Committee on housing and urban development European economic Commission of UNO, by 1980 the percentage of the population aged 60 and over in many advanced, economically developed countries will increase to 20% 2.
The increase in the number of older raises a number of questions on the scientific substantiation of the household, medical and cultural services for elderly and old people I have them housed in the homes of the appropriate types. No program of housing construction, as evidenced by the materials of the who 3, will not be complete if it is not stipulated minimum standards for the representatives of this group of the population.
In most economically developed countries the problem of housing for the elderly is at different levels of implementation. It largely depends on what socio-political credo is held by the state in the life under the decision of a housing program that underlies these programs.
In many capitalist countries homes for the elderly build communities, charities, individuals and rarely by local authorities. As a rule, a level of comfort and service in these dwellings is determined by the solvency of the persons who dwell in them. In these countries, along with expensive comfortable boarding houses are houses with minimal services.
In the USSR and a number of European socialist countries, where the care for the elderly is a matter of state importance, many elderly people in need in domestic service and constant care, are on full state maintenance in boarding houses for the elderly. The construction of these buildings is carried out with observance of sanitary norms and requirements. Currently in the USSR and a number of economically developed countries (England, USA, Switzerland, GDR, Czechoslovakia and others) in the field of housing construction has been a tendency to a more in-depth development and integrated application of scientific bases at the decision of questions of typology of residential buildings and service system.
An important step in determining the principles of design of the residential buildings was the study of the demographic structure of the population and its impact on the determination of volumes and types of housing.
The tasks of complex sociological research dwelling includes the study of the functions of the home and family needs, identifying the specific interests of families of different demographic composition, age and social groups of the population, forms and patterns of contacts in the system of the city. Considerable attention is paid to socio-hygienic issues relating to scientific and technical progress. Currently, the concept of "home" is not limited to the apartment or house. It provides a variety of services.
The study of the way of life of elderly and old people have shown that this group of the population, more than any other age group needs different forms of social, household and cultural services and their closest connection with housing. From what ways will be developed service system, what it will take shape and mass character, will largely depend on the character of formation of types of housing for the elderly. It is obvious that in different countries the solution of the housing problem for the elderly will have its own distinctive features. But everywhere it should pursue a common goal-the creation of conditions conducive to the preservation of an active, healthy and productive old age, so that in modern society to extend the period of active creative life for the elderly.
This section outlines General principles of development of modern forms of housing for the elderly on the basis of complex socio-demographic factors, age characteristics of the body of elderly people. The questions of influence meisemann relationships, lifestyle and employment on the formation types of apartments and public services for the population. Selected issues related to hygiene problem of dwellings for the elderly. The basic requirements for special devices and equipment, which must be presented to dwellings for the elderly. Recommendations on the methods of settlement and the types of homes for old people in conditions of urban construction, the design of the premises. The material presented does not claim to be exhaustive coverage of the problem of dwellings for the elderly. Many issues are controversial and require additional research and individual solutions.

1. Chapter written in co-authorship with K. architect. N. O. I. Smirnova.
2. Of the United Nations. The report on the housing conditions of the elderly. Economic Commission for Europe.
3. Who. The Committee for housing, construction and town planning. Geneva