Housing

From the first days of Soviet power, the Soviet government paid a housing lot of attention: C. I. Lenin signed a decree on sanitary protection of the home, were established sanitary and technical standards of housing construction has started a broad construction of residential buildings. In the USSR was carried out sanitary supervision for housing construction (the control over implementation of design and construction of hygienic norms, consultation design and construction organizations, conducting laboratory tests etc). In housing should be provided with good conditions for the proper organization of family life, for rest and normal development and education of children. Housing must be dry and warm; lighting (see) living rooms and auxiliary premises must meet hygienic requirements; the air must be clean, without admixture harmful to human health of substances and microorganisms (see Air). Housing should be isolated from the external and internal noise, to be spacious, with convenient location the dwelling and utility rooms.
In raw overcrowded housing with little natural light and poor ventilation have higher morbidity, especially tuberculosis, rheumatism, infectious diseases, rickets and other
Residential building depending on the nature of their use are divided into: 1) the house of residential type for families (single-family and multi-family); 2) the house type hotel to stay small families and individuals; 3) a hostel for prolonged stay of students, students, workers, etc.
In the houses of room type basic element is a residential section, consisting of apartments, facing one stairwell. The apartment consists of living (bedrooms, bathrooms day stay) and subsidiary premises (front, kitchen, bathroom, toilet, larder). In hostels, unlike houses, apartment houses are envisaged extension of subsidiary and service quarters, as living in them, as a rule, do not have their households and need in an organized cultural and domestic service.
The apartment layout should provide good ventilation, optimal conditions of insolation, isolation bedrooms from utility rooms, Elevator shafts, convenient location, kitchen and other Dimensions of the rooms are set with regard to minimum standards of living space, adopted in the USSR (9 m2 per person), the height of the premises and an air exchange between the rooms and open atmosphere.
Light dwelling is Sunny rays (direct and diffuse sunlight and artificial light sources. The sunlight plays an important biological role, ensuring normal functioning of the human body.
Biological activity of sunlight coming through the glazed openings in the room, greatly weakened, but specially carried out researches have shown, that in this case the sun's rays have a large Wellness influence and have a pronounced antibacterial effect. In the USSR approved the sanitary norms of insolation residential premises, according to which all living rooms should be covered by direct sunlight for at least 3 hours. a day in the period from March 22 to September 22. The observance of this requirement, the duration of sun exposure in the winter time is not less than 0,5-1 hours for different parts of the country. Compliance with this standard is achieved rational orientation of residential premises on cardinal points, correct mutual accommodation houses, establishing adequate gaps between buildings depending on their height and orientation.
The scattered sunlight creates indoors most uniform and favorable coverage, which is normalized in the so-called daylight factor (DF). KEO shows the part of the interest is the lighting inside the room from the light of the currently open air. KEO for residential premises shall be taken of 0.5.
In the house should also be provided with adequate artificial lighting (see).

  • Health standards in the operation of the home