Fat metabolism

Fat metabolism (lipid exchange) - the whole process of the transformation of fat in the body. There are three stages of fat metabolism: 1) the breakdown and absorption of fats in the digestive tract; 2) transformation that absorb fat in the tissues of the body; 3) the selection of the products of fat metabolism from the body. The main part of edible fats (see) subject to digestion in the upper sections of the intestine with the participation of the enzyme lipase, secretiruemy pancreas and the mucous membrane of the intestines. As a result of decomposition produces a mixture of fatty acid, di - and monoglycerides.
The digestion and absorption of fats and other lipids (see) facilitates the selection in the intestines of bile acids (see), which fats become emulsified state. Part of fat absorbed in the intestine undigested. That absorb fatty acids are partly used in the intestinal mucosa to resynthesis triglycerides, and phospholipids, and partially transformed into the blood system of portal vein or into the lymph vessels.
The number of neutral fats and fatty acids in the blood varies and depends on the receipt of fats from food and from the speed of deposition of fat in fat depots (see Lipemia). The total fat content in the blood of adults average of 720 ±200 mg%, neutral fats 225±140 mg%, fatty acids 350±150 mg%. In the tissues fats are decomposed under the action of various lipase, and the resulting fatty acids are components of other compounds (phospholipids, esters cholesterol and so on) or are oxidized to the final products. Oxidation of fatty acids is done in several ways. Part of fatty acid oxidation in the liver gives acetoacetic and (beta-hydroxybutyric acid and acetone (see Acetone bodies). In severe diabetes, lipid nephrosis, etc. the amount of acetone bodies in the blood increases sharply. Synthesis of fat in the tissues of the products of fat metabolism, as well as of the products of carbohydrate and protein metabolism. Fat metabolism disorders can be divided into the following groups: 1) violation suction of fat, its deposits and education in adipose tissue; 2) excessive fat accumulation in organs and tissues that are not related to the fatty tissue; 3) violation of intermediate fat metabolism; 4) the violation of the transfer of fat from the blood into the tissues and their allocation.
Cm. also the Metabolism and energy.