Life as a biological phenomenon

According to the beliefs of some scientists (I. S. Shklovsky), life on our planet began approximately 4-4,5 billion years ago. Due to a number of features of development of the Land during the period of its existence has created favorable conditions for the formation of complex organic belkooptorg and other high-molecular compounds in the primary atmosphere (under the influence of electric discharges) and in the water that covered much of the planet (ultraviolet rays). These organic substances, consisting mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and many other chemical elements contained in the oceans in large numbers (their concentration in some settlements reached 1%). Their main feature was the ability to retain their chemical composition and physical properties when interacting with countless different chemicals with which they come into contact. This ability was provided education at first very primitive systems - koatservatov it. "The emergence of such systems is not something special," says the academician. A. I. Oparin. Originally it was just solarbabies areas "primordial soup". This phenomenon can be observed when mixing colloidal solutions * composed of a variety of complex organic substances. It violates the uniformity of their distribution in solvent and "...they are in the form of visible under a microscope koatservatnyh drops, floating in the equilibrium of fluids, which are separated to a well-defined boundary surface (A. I. Oparin).
Having defined structure, koatservatov it possess a certain resistance and the ability to include substances from the environment. "Interacting with the environment and increasing in number systems had increasingly come under the action of natural selection, which provided a broad road for further development only more and more perfect forms of organization" (A. I. Oparin).
In the result of a long period of evolution of such primitive systems arose living matter, and then more complex life forms - organisms; their appearance marked a new, higher stage in the development of life: organisms provide the main property of life - metabolism - not only its chemical structure, but also the formation of special structures conducive to the implementation of the exchanges and the conservation of the body as such and as a biological species with regard to conditions of environment.
Adaptation to constantly changing conditions of life by improving and increasing the complexity of the structure and functions of organisms was the driving force of evolution, which culminates in a modern person.
The process of metabolism in all animals now organisms, from the most primitive to the most complex is the human body, is one of the main foundations of life. He is the most complicated chemical compounds, which are called proteins. F. Engels wrote that "life is a form of existence of protein, essential of which is the exchange of substances with the outside nature, and with the termination of this metabolism stops, and the life that leads to the decomposition of protein" **.
Symptoms of metabolic process in the complex are delivered to the cells and tissues of nutrients and oxygen uptake (assimilation), on the one hand, and, on the other hand, in the formation of the products of metabolism in the removal of proteins from certain substances (degradation)that should be displayed. So, the exchange process consists of two related, but opposite in their meaning processes; assimilation and degradation.
Biological essence of life lies in the implementation process of metabolism, which has very diverse and extremely complex forms. What is happening in the body physiological processes are reduced, ultimately, to the provision of metabolism and its regulation in accordance with the needs of the body, which are determined by the conditions of his life. To send these features there are numerous special bodies, being in a continuous and very complex interaction. In recent years, many researchers have accumulated a wealth of material showing that the essence of life is impossible to understand and without other complex organic structures called nucleic acids ***. They are responsible for the reproduction of complex forms of life, i.e., determine the heredity of the body. On this basis, the life in the elemental form can be understood by us as a way of existence of colloidal systems, containing as its prerequisites connection proteins, nucleic acids and organophosphorus substances. These systems are characterized by the ability to self-regulation and development on the basis of the accumulation and transformation of chemicals, energy and information in the process of their interaction with the environment.

* Colloidal solution - the finest suspension of chemical substances in the liquid environment.
** K. Marx and F. Engels. Op., so 20, page 616.
*** Nucleic acids are open about a hundred years ago by Miescher in nuclei (nucleus - nucleus) cells. Hence their name. It was subsequently shown that they are distributed throughout the cell.