Zinc

Zinc is a chemical element of group II of the periodic system D. I. Mendeleev, number 30, atomic mass 65,37. Metal bluish-white color temperature melting 419,5°, temperature boiling 913 degrees, the density 7,14. In water insoluble. Well soluble in acids.
Metal zinc has no toxic properties. Zinc oxide is the reason of occurrence and development of the so-called foundry fever, which flows by type of acute infectious respiratory catarrh. The workers by inhalation of zinc oxide, especially when repeated its revenues in the body, a feeling of weakness, tightness and chest pain, loss of appetite, excessive thirst, sometimes dry cough. In the future, feel chills, followed by fever. These symptoms disappear after a few hours with profuse sweating and reduced body temperature. During an attack of fever, the patient has the muscle pain, tinnitus, dry throat, sometimes appear nausea, vomiting. In some cases, hepatomegaly.
In the treatment of this disease shows the use of alkaline inhalation, drinking plenty of fluids (strong sweet tea, coffee), rest, heat, and in necessary cases - heart drugs, oxygen, 10% gluconate calcium - 10 ml intramuscularly.
Prevention: all transactions in which there is possible the formation of oxides of zinc, only in the presence of local exhaust ventilation. Maximum mechanization of all operations, use of respirators, wash after work in the shower or bath. Maximum permissible concentration of zinc oxide 6 mg/m3
Zinc chloride (ZnCl2) and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) in case of skin contact may cause inflammation; inhalation : irritation of mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract.
For prevention should limit contact with these substances, the use of protective clothing, thorough hand washing with warm water and 2% solution of sodium bicarbonate. It is useful to grease the hands of the petrolatum, lanolin.
Zinc supplements. In clinical practice, using zinc sulphate and zinc oxide.
Zinc sulfate (list B; Zincum sulfuricum, Zinci sulfas). Assign as antiseptic and astringent with conjunctivitis (eye drops 0,1-0,25-0,5%), with urethritis and vaginitis (douching is 0.1-0.5% solution). The release form: powder.
Zinc oxide (Zincum охуdatum, Zinci oxydum). Prescribed for skin diseases yourself as an astringent, drying, disinfectant in the form of powders, ointments and pastes and in the composition of ready medical products: powder children (zinc oxide 1 part, starch part 1, talc 8 parts), zinc ointment (Unguentum Zinci: zinc oxide 1 part, vaseline 9 parts); Galanin (Galmaninum: salicylic acid 2 parts, zinc oxide 10 parts, talc and starch in 44 part); pasta zinc (Pasta Zinci); pasta zinc-salicylic (Pasta Zincisalicylata); liniment zinc oxide (Linimentum Zinci oxydi); liniment boric-zinc (Linimentum borozincatum), and other

Zinc (Zn) - chem. the side element subgroup of the second group of the periodic system D. I. Mendeleev, then. number 30, at. weight (mass) 65,37. Silvery-white metal, density 7,14, temperature PL 419,5°, temperature instrumentation 913 degrees. In the nature meets in the form of sulfide (zinc blende). Zinc slowly oxidized in the air, moisture accelerates this process. Formed on the surface of the zinc oxide film protects the metal from further oxidation. When heated zinc with oxygen receive zinc oxide. ZnO (loose white powder), going to the preparation of zinc oxide and used in medicine and cosmetics for preparation of various ointments. Under the action of strong alkali solutions of salts of zinc hydroxide is formed zinc Zn(OH)2 - white gelatinous precipitate; it easily dissolves in excess of alkali with the formation of zinnatov (for example, K2ZnO2). With acids zinc forms a salt of them widely used zinc chloride ZnCl2 - a colorless crystalline substance, dissolving in the air, is used in the production of organic paints.
Quickly hardening mixture ZnO with air-conditioner. solution ZnCl, is the usual basis of cement in dental practice. Zinc sulfate or zinc sulphate, ZnSO4·7H2O is used in the production of mineral paints, in medicine as an astringent.
Zinc is a trace element that is necessary for normal life of animals and plants. Especially rich in zinc mushrooms, bran cereals, liver, meat. The human body contains more than 0.001% of zinc. Zinc deficiency in the soil leads to a number of plant diseases; in domestic animals a diet devoid of zinc causes specific parakeratosis and stunting. Biological value of zinc is determined by the fact that he is part of a series of enzyme carbonic anhydrase, carboxypeptidase, glutamatdekarboksilazy, alcohol dehydrogenase, and others the Ability of zinc to form a complex with insulin is used for preparation of the preparation of the prolonged action - Protamine-zinc-insulin.


Radioactive zinc. The practical value of acquired isotopes Zn65, Zn69M, Zn69; Zn65 (T=245 days.) was found in the water cooling the bright nuclear reactors in Hanford (USA). Zn65 is also generated in water and soil neutrons in nuclear explosions. Marine and freshwater algae can concentrate Zn65 and starting from them, Zn65 may be involved in the food chain, including humans (see Ecology, radioecology). Education Zn65 possibly also by the reaction of Cu(d, 2n)Zn65 in copper containing the construction of the cyclotron. American authors found Zn65 in the body of persons serving the reactor and cyclotron. Zn65 classified as isotopes high radiotoxicity. The maximum allowable concentration for him in the water of open reservoirs and water supply sources is equal to 1·10-8 Curie/l, in the air of working premises - 6·10-11 Curie/L.
Zne5 finds application in the form of various salts in isotope method of studying the role of the element zinc in nature. Zinc is part of the enzymes, in particular some dehydrogenases, and insulin; Zn65 can be used for their labels. When introduced into the body of the animal Zn65 collected mainly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas and prostate glands. Its accumulation in the prostate gland depends on gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland. Outstanding Zn65 mainly through the gastrointestinal tract. Zn65 also used to study the role of trace elements in nutrition of plants.
Zn69M (T=14 h., isomeric transition ' -quantum of 0.44 MeV) and Zn68 (T=58 min, p=0,92 MeV) found limited application. Isotopes of zinc is used as a tracer in industry (non-ferrous metallurgy and mechanical engineering), and also in chemical research.

Zinc supplements. In medical practice, the drugs zinc is used mainly as a means of providing local action.
Zinc oxide (Zincum oxydatum; Zinci oxydum, ZnO) provides adsorption effect; used in the form of powders, ointments, pastes, is a member of finished pharmaceutical products (gallmann, zinc ointment, baby powder, spark anestezol, Neohotel).
Galanin (Galmaninum). Ingredients: salicylic acid -2 hours, zinc oxide -10 hours, talc and starch - 44 PM Apply as a powder in sweating feet.
Zinc ointment (Unguentum Zinci). Composition: zinc oxide - 1 h, vaseline - 9 hours is Used as a binder and drying tool for skin diseases.
Baby powder. Composition: zinc oxide - 1 h, starch -2 hours, talc - 8 PM
Zinc sulfate (Zincum sulfuricum, Zinci sulfas, ZnSO4·7H2O). Easily soluble in water; used as an antiseptic and astringent with conjunctivitis (0,1; 0,25; 0,5% eye drops), chronic catarrhal laryngitis (for greasing or comminution of 0.25-0.5% solution), for urethritis and vaginitis (0,1-0,5% solution for douches). It is produced in powder.
Zinc chloride (Zincum chloratum, ZnCl2). Soluble in 0,4 h water, 2 tsp glycerin, 1.3 including alcohol. Used in dental practice as cauterizing (8-10% solutions) and knitting (0,2-1% solution) funds.
Valeriana zinc [Zincum valerianicum (C4H9COO)2 Zn·2H2O, valerianovogo zinc, Valerianovich Sol]. Soluble in alcohol, hardly soluble in water and air. Used as a sedative. Assign inside of powders and pills (0.03-0.05 g).