Venomous snakes

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Class reptiles includes about 6,000 species, which along with lizards, chameleons, amphibians and snakes are widely spread around the globe, except for polar zones, New Zealand, Islands of Crete, Malta, the Azores, on many of the Islands of Polynesia, Madeira, Canary Islands. Different data on the number of species of poisonous snakes. According to A. N. Kashkarova and centuries of stanislovo (1940), from 2300 species of poisonous snakes around 250, Wermuth (1957), from 2500 types of hazardous 17%. According to the data given in the multi-volume "animals" (1969), published in the USSR, from 2700 species (12 families) dangerous 410: in Europe - 8, in Africa - about 75 in Asia and on the Malaysian archipelago-165, in America, mainly southern,- 91, Australia - 80 species.
In the fauna of the USSR there are 56 species of snakes (7 families, 24 type). They are common in the far East, in Siberia, Altai, Middle Asia, Transcaucasia, in the Caucasus and in the middle zone of the European part of the USSR. Bites 11 species of snakes (6 - in Transcaucasia and 5 in Central Asia) dangerous (O. P. Bogdanov, 1973). In Azerbaijan, inhabit 23 species of snakes (5 families, 12 genera), which is more than 83% of the families, 60% of genera and more than 44% of the species found in the fauna of the USSR (A. M. Alekperov, 1970). Of which 5 species are poisonous. Of the 28 species occurring in Turkmenistan, poisonous 4: Cobra, Viper, moccasins and Viper. In Uzbekistan, 16 species of snakes are poisonous Central Asian Cobra and lebetina Viper, sand Viper and moccasins; in Tajikistan - Cobra, sand Viper and Viper; in Kyrgyzstan - and steppe Viper Copperhead snake; in Armenia - steppe, cattle, Caucasian vipers and Viper; in Kazakhstan - ordinary and steppe Viper, Levantine Viper, Western cottonmouth; in the Western and Central parts of the USSR - steppe and forest Viper, Eastern Siberia, Viper, Eastern and ' Copperhead snakes, etc.
From poisonous snakes in the USSR, the most common Sadykova (Viperidae). They divided into vipers (Viperinae) and alkoholowych (Crotalinae). The Viper is the most species: nosed and Caucasian vipers, adder, or Kazulka, and its Eastern subspecies of the steppe Viper, two subspecies of the largest lebetina Viper - V. lebetina obtusa and V. l. turnica C. the Most poisonous Viper. With its thick trunk, short tail and a thin neck (Fig. 1). The upper torso is dark-gray, with dark spots. Along the ridge spots large, and on the sides small.
Belly grey and white with spot spots. The banded Viper - dark-gray color with brownish tint. On both sides of the head, from the corner of his mouth to the eye,is a dark streak. On the back scattered yellowish or brownish-orange, and on each side of black-and-or brownish-grey spots. Big-nosed Viper (Fig. 2) light or yellow-brown color, along the back are black-brown, black or zigzag lines, belly-yellow-brown color with small dark spots, tail - bottom - greenish, yellow or red; only found in Transcaucasia. Echis - the only species of this genus are found in the USSR (Fig. 3), the color is brownish-gray color of sand). On flanks one whitish zigzag lanes, the head is separated from the neck, muzzle short and wide. Cobra can learn easily: brightly colored, with expanding in an emergency neck, giving it an awesome view. Pattern varies from yellowish-pink to red-brown color (Fig. 4). "Coral" colour - red, yellow and black ring on red background - the American representatives of 18 genera of the family elapid snakes. Many tree snake painted in green. Viper Islands lores (Indonesia) differ from Javanese smaller and peculiarities of the coloring.

Fig. 1. Viper.
nosed Viper
Fig. 2. Big-nosed Viper.

Fig. 3. EFA.
Central Asian Cobra
Fig. 4. Central Asian Cobra.