Venomous snakes

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Skin snakes dry, devoid glands and covered with scales or shell, which is significant for the adaptive value (protects the skin from drying and protects it from damage). The stratum corneum is thickened and is tiled. Among scales thin it, which helps to overcome obstacles to movement. The extensibility of the intercession on the back (flanks and belly strengthens pulmonary respiration.
Snakes are thin, long body, devoid of the limbs. The internal organs of their respective pulled out and positioned asymmetrically. Most snakes, especially poisonous, developed the right lung. Extended rear part of his throat at the Viper participates in the act of breathing, compensating function tropinovogo left lung. Heart oblong, separated by partial wall. The right atrium wider left. The esophagus long, passes in a relatively short bowel muscled, facilitating the promotion of food in the stomach. Sexual organs and kidneys stretched. Sex members males - two pairs bag covered horn shields, located behind the anus; when excited turn inside out; bladder not. Allocate snake uric acid, which provides less consumption of water, so they are content with the liquid, supplied in the diet.
Vision most snakes good; to protect the eyes thin leathery film reduces its poignancy. Before shedding eyes mateut, after it - transparent. Iris painted in different colours. The snakes, leading in the night (all poisonous), eyes narrow, the rest of the round.
External ear holes have no snakes. Sufficiently developed inner ear. The sense of smell is developed very well alone it serves as a signal stimulus, catching the scent at a distance of 50 cm From the senses, especially developed language with a pair of organs Yakobson, having the property of fine chemical analyzer, with two output holes in the upper sky. Protruding doubled movable tongue for a few seconds trembles in the air and, with regard to the subject involved inside. Thrusting his tongue in the Jacobson's organ, snakes get the necessary information about the objects of environment. It provides them with a confident movement on the trail of production, search of the victims, and so on, the Opinion of toxicity language unreasonably. Alkoholowych, such as the snake, holes between the eyes and nostrils perform the role of termolecular: catching them the temperature difference to 0, TOS, they define the location of any body, emitting heat rays, at the distance of 35 cm, especially at low ambient temperatures. So Bullock and R. Cowls (1952), measuring the snakes, the currents in the nerve, established greatest reactivity on infrared rays with a wavelength of 0,01-0,015 mm, which corresponds to the maximum heat emitted by animals.
Powerful long spinal cord snakes testifies to the primitiveness of the higher nervous activity. Meanwhile, it provides exceptional coordination, precision movements and reactivity muscles of the body. The spine consists of 141-435 vertebrae. Thanks to their mobility snake easily bend the body and move - crawling. Support for the movement are the ends of the ribs, United by strong muscles and ligaments. The movement is an important factor in life expectancy snakes. For most typical snakes writhing, silent, sliding movement; a long, flexible trunk undulating curves from head to tail. The body, relying on the substrate, creates a pushing force. Speed of not more than 6-8 km/H. On a smooth and loose substrate, movable sand desert sand Viper and horned gremuchy adapted to the type of movement "side door".
Skull snakes consists of a small brain boxes and bones of the jaw apparatus. The lower jaw is hanging from a skull on elastic conjunction that allows you to swallow whole big sacrifice. Curved teeth extraction pushed into the esophagus due to mobility of ribs and their wide divergence in hand.