Venomous snakes

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Snake - zoophagous, except water moccasins and Persian Viper. Swallow prey whole, even alive, if the victim does not have resistance and its size is greater than the thickness of a body of the snake is not more than 2-3 times. Introduced in sacrifice poison destroys tissue, accelerates the digestion and assimilation; speed of digestion in snakes depends on the temperature of the body to a much greater extent than other physiological processes. With slow digestion in cold weather snake die from food poisoning. Eat snakes molluscs, birds, fish, rodents, and so on, So in the stomach lebetina Viper find voles, jerboas, red gerbils, belosoroki, lizards, starlings, sparrows, and others (A. M. Alekperov, 1970); in the stomach of a snake - the remains of fish, amphibians, reptiles (Klimstra, 1959). African egg snake eats only bird's eggs. The snake is capable of for a long time to starve. They grow relatively slowly. Normal growth and development are associated with shedding, occurring 2-4 times a year. Crawling into the slot, snake rubs his head on the ground and stones, and the top layer "old skin is removed stocking.
The life span of vipers - 10-15 years, Indian Python - 25 years. The maximum age in captivity 26 species of snakes - 8 years (Shaw, 1957).
Viper reaches sexual maturity in 3 years (T. R. Aliyev, 1974). In March of sex cells V. lebetina matured to the stage spermatids, in April - may the mating occurs (copulation), spermatogenesis terminated in June - July (C. L. kankawa, I. A. Muskhelishvili, 1973). To ensure copulation steppe Viper in July - August accumulate in the abdomen fat Mature males do not take copulation. The first copulation steppe Viper was observed on April 10, the last - April 25 (M. I. Fomin, 1970).
By way of breeding snakes divided into oviparous, asciiword and viviparous. Cobra, Viper, aspidova, pythons and many colubrid snakes - oviparous. Viper, putting 14-18 eggs, buries them in the foliage, manure or loose soil; through 57-82 days of them pushes juveniles. Some snakes don't give a care about masonry, other (American silt snake, king Cobra, mountain cap) prepare the nest and guard the eggs; pythons "incubate" masonry. Alkoholowe, vipers and most sea snakes - asciiword. The embryos develop in the body of the mother about 2.5 months. Hatching occurs immediately on leaving the eggs, and sometimes even in the body of the mother. From 8-18 eggs excreted 5-13 cubs, who immediately leave mother, and lead an independent life. Time breeding snakes depends on climatic conditions: in Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic - in August - September, in deserts (village Beyukduz) - in early July.
For realization of the processes of life snakes need a lot of heat, so they are very active. Is the ambient temperature. The optimal ambient temperature for snakes +33 C, for Viper - not less than +25 C (I. I. Kozacki, A. M. Zakharov, 1970). Activity snakes also depends on solar radiation, which determines their body temperature and intensity of physiological processes. For Copperhead snake favorable total radiation 0,7-1 cal/cm2 at an ambient temperature of + 14-15 C, steppe Viper - 1-1.2 cal/cm2 at temperature +12 - 18 C (M. I. Fomin, 1970). The observed regularity in the reaction of the serpent on the changing lighting conditions. At optimum temperature mode in Echis (I. I. Kozacki and A. M. Zakharov, 1970), there is a positive phototaxis from 9 h 30 min up to 15 hours (peak about 13 hours) and from 19 hours to 21 h 30 min (peak of about 21 hours)corresponding to the normal conduct of snakes, interleaved preferences them light and darkness as physiological needs of the organism.