Snake

Snake - a detachment of reptiles inhabiting the type of chordates. Elongated body is deprived of his feet, just in some species there are vestiges. Dry skin is covered with snakes dead, laid located scales or semicircular guards; the skin is reset periodically. A long, thin language (sometimes incorrectly called sting) black splitted at the end.

poisonous apparatus of the snake
Fig. 1. Poisonous apparatus snake (top); visible poison gland opening in the base of poisonous tooth. Below - the bite marks on the skin: 1 - non-poisonous snakes; 2 and 3 - poisonous snakes.

Snakes are divided into non-toxic, palagonitic and poisonous. At last on the front edge of the upper jaw are two poisonous tooth; they're bigger than the other, slightly curved back and have an internal channel or a groove to drain the poison. At the base of the channel or grooves offer excretory duct poisonous glands (Fig. 1). Calm poisonous snake teeth bent under the jaw, when they bite issued ahead and force stuck into a victim's body. Palagonitic snakes are poisonous teeth sit deep in the mouth and at the time of the bite can't pierce the skin of a person. Live snake in the grass, among bushes, in trees, in cracks in the soil, under stones and so on, Their color is frequently blended with the environment. The snakes crawl at the gardens and the home of the person; sea snakes are exclusively aquatic life.
Bright external signs by which one can distinguish poisonous snake from non-toxic, no. In the world there are about 2500 species of snakes, of which for human poisonous more than 200. Of the 56 species of snakes found in the USSR, poisonous 10. In the Northern and Central regions of the USSR poisonous adder (Fig. 2), in the southern steppes, steppe Viper, in the lower Volga and the far East - Copperhead snakes. Poisonous snake bites which is especially dangerous, such as the Levantine Viper, live in Transcaucasia and Central Asia, as EFA and spectacle of the serpent, or Cobra (Fig. 3),- only in Central Asia. In Crimea, no poisonous snakes. The Copperhead snakes and harmless.


Fig. 2. Adder

Fig. 3. Central Asian Cobra (no figure of points)

People snakes attack in case they hurt or inadvertently catches.
By the bite of a poisonous snake on the skin are two small red dots - places of penetration of the fangs. The poison of vipers is causing in the organism bitten hemolytic action contains hemorrhage, causing bleeding; the poison of Cobra (a neurotoxin) affects the nervous system. When bitten by a Viper marked pain, swelling in the area of the bite, haemorrhage skin, pericardium, light, sometimes with tissue necrosis. When bitten by a Cobra - shortness of breath, palpitations, dizziness, nausea, sometimes vomiting, death occurs from paralysis of the respiratory system. When you sting like a Viper and Cobra there are changes in the heart muscle, and liver, kidney.
First aid and treatment. The victim should not make incisions in the skin at the site of the bite, to impose a plait; you cannot give to drink alcohol, vodka, to enter into the area of the bite permanganate potassium (potassium permanganate) or other oxidizing agents, burn the site of the bite. It is recommended immediately after the bite on 4-7 minutes to squeeze out Ranok poison fingers, taking a bite in the fold, and to vigorously suck and spit released liquid.
The bitten limb immobilizer, fixing tires manufactured on site (timber, poles). The patient as soon as possible take to a health facility (to move independently it is not), laid in bed, giving the bitten limb elevated position, designate a rich hot drink (tea, coffee, soup). When you bite lebetina Viper and Echis should as soon as possible (not later than one hour after the bite) to enter protivosemnye serum "anthura" in the area of the bite subcutaneously 20-30 ml (Besedke), intramuscularly 40-90 ml; intravenous 40% solution of glucose in 40-80 ml of two to three times a day. Effective hormonal therapy - cortisone by 40-60 mg, prednisolone 20 - 30 mg / day. From the heart and vasoconstrictive drugs used caffeine, kordiamin, adrenaline, ephedrine. Administered drugs, sealing the walls of blood vessels and normalize tissue metabolism, vitamins C, P, K, B12, calcium salts. In case of severe pain resort to local procaine blockade.
Through the bite of a snake and rattlesnakes the most important method of non-specific clinical treatment - drip blood transfusions daily during the first 3-5 days. In all cases it is recommended anti-tetanus serum.
When Cobra bite the most rapid and complete neutralization of poison is achieved subcutaneous or intramuscular 2-3 reception 40-120 ml specific serum "anticorr". Serum eliminates the phenomenon of intoxication , not only for early introduction, but after the development of paralysis and respiratory depression. In severe cases transferred on artificial respiration with the help of special devices.