The value for a person of essential nutrients

Food is a natural source of essential nutrients (proteins, fats, carbohydrates), as well as vitamins, mineral salts, water and other necessary for the body.
Proteins are high-molecular organic substances composed of amino acids. Proteins are the most important part of the diet. For children and adolescents with unfinished process of growth of a sufficient amount of protein is of special importance, because only with such nutrition effectively run growth and development of the organism. Proteins are the main plastic material, the source for the regeneration of the cells and tissues of the body. In addition, they serve as a source of formation of enzymes, hormones, immune phone protein Content in the diet has an impact on higher nervous activity. Proteins participate in the energy balance of body, especially at high energy demands and the lack of carbohydrates and fats. Thus, with the participation of protein flow of vital processes.
Proteins are absorbed into the body in the form of amino acids. Some of the amino acids (10 of 22) are called essential because they cannot be synthesized in an animal organism. Depending on amino acids included in the composition of proteins, there are proteins complete and incomplete. Full called proteins, which include all the essential amino acids.
The burning of 1 g of protein in the body is released approximately 4.1 cal.
The main source of full proteins are the products of animal origin (meat, fish, milk), so if the diet compiling it should be borne in mind that in the total amount of protein consumed during the day, proteins of animal origin was about 70%.
Defective protein diet or lack of it causes the protein starvation, resulting in the destruction of native protein of the body, changing the functions of the endocrine glands, nervous system, lowering immunobiological reactivity of organism. In children defective protein diet causes growth retardation, mental and physical development.
Fats are a mixture of esters of glycerol and various fatty acids. In human nutrition fats play an important and varied role. They are a source of energy as have a high calorific value. When their breakup of 1 gram of fat provides 2.2 times more energy than proteins and carbohydrates (instead of 9.3 4.1 faeces). They have plastic importance, as are an integral part of the structure of cells and tissues.
Fats are a source of fat-soluble vitamins a and D, phosphatides, unsaturated fatty acids. They also improve the taste of food.
Origin fats can be animals and plant. The absorption of fats depends on their melting point: the higher it is, the harder it is digested fats.
From the point of view of biological properties fats, and proteins are divided into complete and incomplete. To fully include fats, which has a low melting point and containing vitamins a and D. this is mainly fats of animal origin, especially members of milk and dairy products. Vegetable fats, although it has a low melting point, but do not contain fat-soluble vitamins a and D. However, they are also quite valuable food product that contains vitamin E and unsaturated fatty acids, which are in power is very great.
In the daily diet, the share of fats of animal origin must account for 70-80% of total fat.
Carbohydrates are the primary energy material. However, they perform a number of other functions: support level and replenish the glycogen stores in the liver, regulate blood sugar, included in the structure of cells and are involved in their construction.
Important role of carbohydrates in the regulation of protein and fat exchange. When a sufficient intake of carbohydrates and good digestibility their consumption of proteins and fats is limited, and Vice versa.
The digestion of carbohydrates accompanied fermentation processes that support in the intestine certain microflora opposed to developing putrefactive bacteria.
Fiber stimulates intestinal peristalsis and thereby normalize its activities. Recently found that fiber helps to eliminate cholesterol from the body. It creates a basic volume of food and satiety,
The main source of carbohydrates serve vegetable products (bread, pasta, cereals, vegetables and fruits). From the total number entered in the body of carbohydrates 20% must be received in the form of sugar (60-100 grams per day).
The burning of 1 g of carbohydrates in the body is freed 4.1 feces.
Minerals play an important role in human nutrition, though, and are required in small quantities (table. 13).

Table 13. Daily need in major mineral salts (in milligrams)
Age Calcium Phosphorus Iron
Children from 1 year to 11 years old
Children and teenagers from 11 to 18 years
Adults
1000
1000
800
1500
1500-2000
1600
15
15
15

They are included in the composition of proteins in cells and give them the properties of living protoplasm (phosphorus, sulfur), hold down the osmotic pressure in the tissues (K, Na). Calcium and phosphorus, being members of bones and teeth, give them the necessary strength and hardness. Necessary for the organism copper (part of the enzymes), iron (part of the hemoglobin and respiratory enzyme in the blood), cobalt (part of vitamin B12), iodine, fluorine, and many other elements.
It is established, that is not only the absolute amount of calcium, but also the right balance it with other salts (especially phosphorus). The most favorable ratio of salts of calcium and phosphorus is 1:1.5 or 1:2. This is the ratio of calcium and phosphorus in milk and dairy products, cabbage.
Vitamins are organic compounds that the body needs in small amounts and providing normal physiological functions. Vitamins are part of the enzyme systems. So, for example vitamin B1 is included in the activity of enzyme systems, provides carbohydrate metabolism, vitamin B2 is part of the tissue of the respiratory enzymes.
An insufficient supply of vitamins in the body develop hypovitaminosis, reflected in a decrease in resistance, health and other
The complete lack of vitamins in food composition causes beriberi disease with clearly expressed symptoms. Such States may also arise in the human intake of vitamins.
Vitamins are divided into two groups: water-soluble and fat-soluble. To include water-soluble vitamins C, B1, B2, PP and others, to the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, K.


Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) increases the body's resistance to infectious diseases, its resistance to high and low temperatures and pressures, promotes regenerative processes with injuries and burns, is involved in redox processes. Under the influence of vitamin C decreases the permeability of the vascular wall, improves its elasticity and strength.
Gipovitaminoz With expressed in lowering efficiency, weakness, apathy, fatigue. Reduced reactivity of the organism and, as a consequence of this increased susceptibility to disease (especially the common cold).
Gipovitaminoz With also contributes to the development of atherosclerosis.
Beriberi With - scurvy is now rare. Characterized by the appearance of the point of subcutaneous hemorrhages on the lower limbs, muscles, joints. Later on the skin and mucous membranes appear ulceration, teeth not get loose and fall out.
Vitamin C is found in vegetables, fruit, berries. Its a lot of black currant, wild rose, tomatoes, green onions, citrus fruits. The main source of vitamin C in winter are potatoes, cabbage, green onion, At heat treatment, especially when the access of oxygen, vitamin C is destroyed, so we should pay more attention to the proper cooking of food.
Vegetables should be put in boiling water, boil in the pot with the lid closed. When cooking borsch, vegetable soups, various vegetables, put in broth, depending on the terms of their cooking. It is not recommended to digest vegetables, keep them long on a hot stove, reheating, store water in purified form
Vitamin C is quickly destroyed in an alkaline medium and long storage of vegetables and fruit (except citrus). Therefore, in spring it is recommended to vitaminiziruet ready meals by adding them ascorbic acid (soups, fruit drinks). In acidic first dishes (soup, borsch), vitamin C is retained when cooking better than in soups.

Vitamin B1 is contained in various cereals (in peripheral and embryonic parts), beans, peas, nuts, liver, yeast, egg yolks. It is more persistent than vitamin C, and little is destroyed by cooking.
Vitamin B1 is observed predominantly for the supply of grain products, deprived of shells and embryonic part. In the B1-deficiency develops nutritional polyneuritis (the disease beriberi).
Vitamin belongs to a group of fat-soluble and is found only in foods of animal origin (fish oil, butter, cheese). In products of plant origin contains provitamin A. Sources of carotene are tomatoes, apricots, carrots, etc.
Vitamin a has an effect on the entire body, contributing to the growth. Deficiency disorders twilight of view because of the lack of education of the visual purpura, impaired growth and skeletal development, hyperkeratosis.

Vitamin D also belongs to the group of fat-soluble. Source of vitamin D is cod liver oil, liver, fish and mammals, egg yolk, butter. In plants and yeast contains provitamin D - ergosterol, which is converted to vitamin D under the influence of UV-light.
A lack of vitamin D in the body causes a disturbance of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Violations salt metabolism in children leads to rickets and in adults to osteomalacia and osteoporosis. Daily requirement of vitamins are presented in table. 14.

Table 14. Daily requirement of vitamins (in milligrams)
Population Vitamins
A B1 (thiamine) B2 (Riboflavin) C (ascorbic acid) PP (nicotinic acid) D (S)
Adult:
a) at an average cost of labour
b) in heavy work or neuropsychic tension
C) in case of very hard work or excessive neuropsychic tension
Pregnant women
Nursing mothers
Children:
a) up to 7 years
b) from 7 to 14 years
at the age of 14 years

1,5 1,5
1,5 2
2
1
1,5
1,5

2
2,5
3
2,5
3
1,5
1,5
2
  70
100
120
100
120
50
70
70
15
20
25
20
25
10
15
20
Not more than 500
Notes:
1. Apply vitamin D and PP to be appointed doctor.
2. S - international unit. 1 S of vitamin D is 0,000025 mg chemically pure vitamin (calciferol).