The importance of nutrition for health

Rational nutrition is one of the main factors influencing health, physical development, morbidity of the population. A vivid example of the dependence of physical development from nutrition are low indices of physical development of the population in the colonial countries.
The failure of a diet has an impact on work capacity, resulting in fatigue, loss of efficiency. In children malnutrition leads to delayed growth and physical development.
Rational and adequate food contributes to the conservation of natural and acquired immunity of the person to various diseases.
It is now established that the chemical composition of food can increase the body's resistance to various toxic substances and help eliminate them from the body.
Investigations of I. P. Pavlov and his students proved that the nature of food determines the nature of digestion. Therefore, the food is considered as one of the most important therapeutic factors.
Prominent domestic hygienist Century, Khlopin said that "good nutrition is the basis of people's health because it increases the body resistance of pathogenic influences and it depends on the mental and physical development of the nation, its working capacity and combat power."
In the Program of the CPSU important place is given to activities aimed at improving the nutrition of the population. So, the decade will be satisfied needs in high-quality and varied nutrition of the entire population.
The most important task of nutrition science with the rapid growth of population on the earth are the provision of population with good in terms of quality and quantity of the food, first of all proteins.
For compensation of daily energy expenditure must be provided for the introduction of the organism enough food particular composition. Food must meet several requirements:
1) Food should cover the metabolic cost in accordance with the severity of work and hours of work, profession, age, working time (day, night), state of health, and others (table. 9).

Table 9. Daily calorie needs of the adult working population into different groups work intensity
Groups Age Men Women
I - the person whose work is not connected with the expenditure of physical work or requires insignificant physical effort from 18 till 40
from 40 to 60
2800
2600
2400
2200
II - workers mechanized labor and the service sector, whose work does not require great physical effort from 18 till 40
from 40 to 60
3000
2800
2550
2350
III - workers mechanized labor and the service sector, whose work is connected with considerable physical effort from 18 till 40
from 40 to 60
3200
2900
2700
2500
IV - workers non-mechanized labor or partially mechanized labor large and medium gravity from 18 till 40
from 40 to 60
3700
3400
3150
2900

2) Food should deliver the body the right amount of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts and vitamins (table. 10, 11).

Table 10. The need in proteins, fats and carbohydrates to the major groups of the adult population (g / day)
Groups Proteins Including animals Fats Including animals Carbohydrates
I
Men from 18 till 40 years
" " " 40 " to 60 "
Women from 18 to 40 years
" " " 40 " to 60 "

96
89
82
75

58
53
49
45

90
81
77
70

27
25
23
21

382
355
329
303
II
Men from 18 till 40 years
" " " 40 " to 60 "
Women from 18 to 40 years
" " " 40 " to 60 "

99
92
84
77

54
50
46
43

97
91
82
76

29
27
25
23

413
385
352
324
III
Men from 18 till 40 years
" " " 40 " to 60 "
Women from 18 to 40 years
" " " 40 " to 60 "

102
93
86
79

56
51
47
44

103
94
87
81

31
28
26
25

445
401
375
347
IV
Men from 18 till 40 years
" " " 40 " to 60 "
Women from 18 to 40 years
" " " 40 " to 60 "

108
100
92
85

54
50
46
43

120
110
102
94

36
33
30
28

522
480
444
409

Table 11. Physiological norms of nutrition for children
Indicators Age (years)
0,5-1,0 1-1,5 1,5-2,0 3-4,0 5-7,0 7-10,0 11-13,0 14-17 boys 14-17 girls
Proteins in the city
including animals
Fats in the city
including animals
Carbohydrates in g
Calories in units
25

20-25*
25*

25
113*
800*
48

36
48

-
160
1300
53

40
53

5
192
1500
63

44
63

8
233
1800
72

47
72

11
252
2000
80

48
80

15
324
2400
96

58
96

18
382
2850
106

64
106

20
422
3150
93

56
93

20
367
2750
* Not included proteins, fats and carbohydrates in the diet of children from the mother's milk.

3) the General caloric content of food should be properly distributed to individual doses throughout the day.
4) Food should be a pleasant smell, taste, cause a feeling of saturation and be harmless.
In the counts calories should distinguish between the notions about the product's weight gross weight and net weight. Under the weight of a product gross understand the total weight of the product incorporating and inedible parts in the form of future waste. Net weight - the net weight of the product without waste. For example, potatoes are taken on a portion in the amount of 300 g (gross weight). It is known that the potato yields up to 25% of waste in the form of peripheral parts removed from the peel when cleaning. Consequently, net weight portions of potatoes, actually included in the diet, will be equal to 225 g (net weight). Energy value of products is calculated on the net weight and gives an idea of the total caloric value of the product without regard unassimilable part nutrients.