Physiology itching studied insufficiently, many authors bind its appearance with irritation pain receptors, located in the epidermis. Distinguish between physiological itching, occurs when the bites and crawling insects, and pathological itching that appear in response to inappropriate irritation. Itching accompanies many skin diseases (neurodermatitis, eczema, hives, red flat zoster , etc.), but can exist independently, being the main and the only symptom the disease.
As a result of constant scratching the skin is covered with bloody peel, joins infection and developed pyoderma (see).
Acute attacks of pruritus are associated with food or medicinal allergens (see Allergies) and quickly pass. Chronic skin itching can be caused the poisoningarising in connection with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (gastritis, colitis), liver and gall bladder, kidneys. Chronic itching may occur when helminthic invasions, violations metabolism (diabetes, gout) and the functions of the endocrine glands (thyroid, sexual), nervous and mental the disease. Often accompanied by itching such malignant processes, as Hodgkin's disease, a cancer of the internal bodies, being an early symptom of the disease. Itchy skin can to be local (localized) and generalized).
Among generalized pruritus distinguished: 1) senile itching that occurs in men over the age of 60 years in the form attacks, especially at night, and is caused by atherosclerosis, the menopause and other reasons; 2) seasonal itching - observed in people with autonomic dystonia in the transition time of the year.
Among localized forms of skin itch are distinguished: 1) itching rear the passage that is more often in men, accompanied by education painful cracking and development of secondary infection (gidradenit, furuncles). The disease is often associated with hemorrhoids, the proctitis, prostatitis, helminthic invasion, slovenliness and others; 2) genital itching that occurs more often in women and usually caused Belami (see), Trichomonas vulvovaginitis, inflammatory diseases of the genital organs, sexual neuroses, endocrine disorders (menopause). UD genitals can be caused by irritant urine in diabetes, gout, may be also one of the early symptoms of cancer of the genital organs or one of the manifestations of toxicity pregnancy.
Treatment: identifying and possible elimination of causes itching, diet, eliminating annoying food and alcohol, sedatives (bromine, Valerian, Elenium); desencibilizirutuyu treatment: intravenous 10% solution of calcium chloride, 30% solution sodium thiosulfate; inside appoint anphetamine drugs (Dimedrol, suprastin or pipolfen); hydrotherapy: warm (temperature 36-37 degrees) baths for 20-25 minutes, soul, sulfur, radon baths, sea bathing; physiotherapy: diadynamic current and ultrasound paravertebral. Naruzhno - agitated suspension and alcohol solutions, which include antipruritic tools: 0,5 - 2% solution menthol, 10-20% solution anestezina, 1-5% phenol; coal tar in pure form, and ointments with corticosteroids (prednizolonovuyu, oksikort and others).
zublena (fluctuation) - a sign of fluid accumulation in the pathological focus (abscess, hematoma, bursitis, and so on). The emergence of itching in dense inflammatory infiltrate indicates it purulent fusion (abstsedirovanie) and an indication to cut (see the Abscess) .
To discover itching fingers of both hands (1 or 2, depending on the size of infiltration) is placed near the centre of the investigated the field, pressing lightly on her. The fingers of the left hand remain motionless, his right to produce light strokes that in the presence of fluid is transmitted on the left hand. And Vice versa, tremors fingers of the left hand feel fingers of his right. The thinner wall purulent cavities than she poverhnostnye, the more determined itching. With massive walls and deep location oral discover itching difficult or even impossible. Sensation false itching occurs sometimes when palpation muscle or fat tissue (for example, when the lipoma), but the shocks are transmitted only in one direction, and when you change the position of the fingers the itching sensation disappears.